Electricity, identified as a basic human demand, is a key to economic growing, coevals of employment, riddance of poorness and human development particularly in rural communities. Adequate supplies of suited signifiers of this energy at acceptable cost for development, is an indispensable requirement for power suppliers.The crisp additions of oil monetary values in early 70s drew attending to energy supply jobs ( Energy in Ghana 2010 ) . Developing states in peculiar felt the impact of the high oil monetary values since import of energy takes a greater proportion of their export net incomes compared to the developed states.
The two chief attacks for rural electrification are ; extension of power from the national grid to selected countries and the usage of Diesel bring forthing Stationss to function a little web which could non profit from the grid. Both ways have their ain short approachs. There is a high fiscal deductions associated with the extension of the grid over long distances ensuing in system instability every bit good as hapless burden factor and the troubles in the care of the long transmittal lines particularly in hard terrain. ( Kamalapur and Udaykumar 2010 )
Diesel generators on the other manus require regular supplies of fuel which sometimes are of major jobs for rural countries, particularly at certain season of the twelvemonth when the hapless nature of the roads in such countries are practically unpassable. Their predicaments worsen when fuel deficit hit the state at big. Besides the proviso of fuel, the keeping of competent operation care staff is really hard since offer of competitory wages are normally a major restraint. ( McNelis, Derrick and Starr 1988 ) Even with the qualified staffs, the necessity in obtaining the necessary spare parts in clip of
demand to maintain the system running is a major factor. ( McNelis, Derrick and Starr 1988 ) .
Rural electrification is regarded as a development precedence of most developing states like Ghana. Although big amounts of money are spent every twelvemonth on rural electrification, it will take old ages for small towns far off from the national grid to profit from a reasonably low-cost and dependable power supply.
By the virtuousness of its geographical location, within the Torrid Zones ( lat.50, 36’N: Long. 00,10’E ) , Ghana is endowed with of course abundant renewable energy resources. The resources include Hydro, Bio and Solar energies ( Abakah, 1995 ) . Bio energy exists in the signifier wood fuels in the forest countries ; but its rate of development outweighs its regeneration. Hydro energy on the other manus is presently under-exploited. The state has two hydro-electric power Stationss and two thermic Stationss. However energies produced by these power Stationss are unequal for the states energy demands and has to import energy to supplement it ( Abakah, 1995 ) .
It was estimated in the twelvemonth 2000 that electricity accounted for about 11 % of the entire energy consumed. The unequal supply of power chiefly obtained from hydro and thermic beginnings compelled the state to import some sum of energy from La Cote d’Ivoire to supplement her domestic supply particularly during peak hours. ( Energy in Ghana 2010 )
It was expected that by the twelvemonth 2010 the states energy system will alter from the mostly hydro-based system to a mostly thermal-based 1 with the hope of utilizing natural gas as the chief beginning of fuel. The alteration was to be made possible by the West African Gas Pipeline Project, which was expected to transport natural gas from Nigeria to Ghana. ( Energy in Ghana 2010 )
The current national entree to electricity supply is about 43 % of the population. However, over 80 % of the domestic electricity supply is consumed in the metropoliss and urban towns. ( Energy in Ghana 2010 ) Hydropower and imported dodo fuel are the chief energy beginnings used to bring forth electricity in the state.
Ghana soon depends extremely on petroleum oil and wood fuel for her energy ingestion. The state ‘s energy ingestion therefore increase yearly as a consequence of growing in population coupled with economic activities every bit good as rural-urban migration and inflow of imported vehicles.
Solar energy is available in limitless measures. It is merely used in its natural province largely for saving intents. Other resources like the air current energy, tides and geothermal are undistinguished in the state ( Abakah, 1995 ) .
Heavy dependance on commercial fuel such as rough oil to run into the demands of the turning population is dismaying ensuing in short supply in energy. The deficit of the state ‘s energy supply compelled power suppliers to present burden casting which is more marked in the rural countries. ( Energy in Ghana 2010 )
Rural electrification is an of import component for rural growing and the relief of poorness in a state. ( Kamalapur, Udaykumar 2010 ) . In Ghana, electricity has non played the expected function in the socio-economic growing of the rural communities. Majority of the population of the state live in the rural countries. The consequence of population growing and supply jobs of fuels has a great impact on the inordinate usage of bio fuels particularly in the rural countries ensuing in deforestation through extra felling of trees ( Energy in Ghana 2010 )
The authorities ‘s aspiration to supply electricity to all rural communities by the twelvemonth 2020 is far from realization due to fiscal restraint as a barrier. This makes it extremely impossible for authorities to to the full run into all demand of energy supply with national grid system. The economic status of Ghana does non allow immediate solution of power crisis by imported fuels. With the rich solar resources available throughout the twelvemonth in Ghana and taking into history the cost component of PV solar place systems ( SHS ) as against the grid-connected system, the better option is to see Solar place system ( SHS ) as an alternate energy beginning for rural electrification in Ghana.
Purpose: This undertaking is aimed at the design of suited Solar Home System ( SHS ) using appropriate devices such as maximal power point tracker and dc-dc convertor for rural electrification utilizing solar resources to run into some of their basic energy demands such as: lighting, cookery, H2O pumping, telephone communicating, and other consumer tools such as wirelesss, telecastings, iceboxs etc.
Aim: At the terminal of this undertaking ;
An efficient, dependable and low-cost solar place system ( SHS ) for rural electrification will be designed utilizing PV faculty as the power beginning.
Communities in the rural countries could hold entree to electricity. [ A suited dc-dc convertor will be designed to fit District of Columbia battery tons.
Clinics and wellness Centres in the distant countries will utilize the power to hive away vaccinums and indispensable drugs in deep deep-freezes and visible radiation every bit good doing usage of the power available.
Schools in the distant countries will besides profit from the system.
Rural Urban impetus could cut down
Communities will profit from some societal activities With the handiness of power.
The power supplied by a solar panel depends on the sunstroke, temperature and electromotive force of the panel and so an of import consideration in the design of efficient solar systems is to track the correct maximal power point ( MPPT ) . ( Hur, Shen 1998 ) . The intent of the MPPT is to travel the panel runing electromotive force near to the MPP under altering atmospheric conditions. ( Solar Energy International 2010 )
Basic map of maximal power point trailing ( MPPT ) system
A extremely efficient dc-dc convertor to optimise electrical power for photovoltaic ( PV ) cell, is the maximal power point tracker. It ensures faculties operate near maximal power point. This helps to bring forth suited power to drive tonss. When PV faculties are used for the beginning of energy, MPPT is used to rectify fluctuations in the system by leting the accountant to track the maximal power point of the array throughout the twenty-four hours to in order to present the maximal energy available to the battery ( Solar Energy International 2010 ) .
With MPPT, a higher end product electromotive force of faculties than battery systems can be used by consumers. System complexness is minimised by the MPPT. It has the ability to supervise the end product electromotive force and current from the panel and decides the operating point of power to the batteries. It prevents soaking and dispatching to solar panels. ( Anderson, Dohan and Sikora 2003 )
The nonlinear fluctuation of end product electromotive force and current are overcome by the MPPT every bit good. ( Tharama, Kumar and Naik 2005 ) .It has the ability to increase the efficiency of solar panels 25 % -30 % more the normal accountant ( Solar Energy International 2010 )
Photovoltaic systems are solar systems that produce electricity straight from sunshine. ( Solar Energy International ) . The system produces clean, dependable energy. It does non do usage of fossil fuels. It is widely used in many applications. A common application for PV engineering is illuming, powering of wirelesss, pocket reckoners, tickers etc. It is besides used on big graduated table to supply consumers with solar-generated electricity or as a back-up for critical equipment.
In this undertaking, PV panel will be used as the chief power beginning. Solar radiation received by the panel, are stored in batteries for usage latter.Other Maximum.Other devices and equipment work together in harmoniousness to accomplish a good consequence. ( Solar Energy International 2010 ) . The Sun ‘s place alterations with clip ensuing in panels having changing Sun light so MPPT integrating a convertor and accountant will be used to fit the d.c battery burden. ( Solar Energy International 2010 ) .
Besides the usage of equipment and devices for the systems, some of import factors are taken in consideration to guarantee a good design. These includes: latitude, the degree of radiation over a period of clip, cloud, shadiness, joust, orientation.etc
Barricading rectifying tube
Control Drive Circuit
Fig. 2 shows overall conventional of the PV faculty with MPPT accountant
( Beginning: Photovoltaic major undertaking overview )
Gnatt chart demoing clip program of the undertaking