Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) is also called as syndrome X, cardiovascular metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance syndrome. It is a cluster of risk factors associated with an elevated risk of development of Hyperlipidemia (elevated triglycerides and low levels of high density lipoprotein (HDL), hypertension, abdominal obesity, glucose intolerance and concomitant insulin resistance. It develops risk of heart and diabetes disease. Adler,R (2007),The journal of alternative and complementary medicine
Many people are suffering with this syndrome which has deadly effects. This is the right time that we seriously look into it and curb the epidemic. Definition of Metabolic syndrome (MetS) itself varies with different agencies. But the symptoms are accepted generally. This dissertation looks into varies definitions, allopathic and naturopathic approaches in dealing with the problem, limitations and further research required. Definition
The two important definitions of Metabolic Syndrome are “Based on the guidelines from the 2001 National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel (ATP III), any three of the following traits in the same individual meet the criteria for the metabolic syndrome: Abdominal obesity: a waist circumference over 102 cm (40 in) in men and over 88 cm (35 inches) in women. Serum triglycerides 150 mg/dl or above. HDL cholesterol 40mg/dl or lower in men and 50mg/dl or lower in women. Blood pressure of 130/85 or more. Fasting blood glucose of 110 mg/dl or above.
(Some groups say 100mg/dl) The World Health Organization (WHO) has slightly different criteria for the metabolic syndrome: High insulin levels, an elevated fasting blood glucose or an elevated post meal glucose alone with at least 2 of the following criteria: Abdominal obesity as defined by a waist to hip ratio of greater than 0. 9, a body mass index of at least 30 kg/m2 or a waist measurement over 37 inches. Cholesterol panel showing a triglyceride level of at least 150 mg/dl or HDL cholesterol lower than 35 mg/dl.
Blood pressure of 140/90 or above (or on treatment for high blood pressure)” (2002,January 16). Web extension to The Journal of the American Medical Association, Retrieved April 8th, 2008 from the World Wide Web:http://jama. ama-assn. org/cgi/content/abstract/287/3/356 Metabolic syndrome is present in 4. 6 percent of normal weight men, 22. 4 percent of overweight men, and 59. 6 percent of obese men. Distribution of the same is similar with women. In last decade obesity among the adult population has doubled. Approaches of Allopathic and Naturopathic practitioners on Metabolic Syndrome
Allopathic and Naturopathic practitioner’s analyze the patient and go through Laboratory findings before going for further diagnosis and treatment. Adler explains “After a battery of expensive and/or invasive diagnostic tests confirms the obvious diagnosis, six to ten different expensive and potentially hazardous medications are prescribed to treat the disorders. On the other end of the continuum are a few practitioners whose prescriptions are limited to exercise, stress reduction and dietary modification”. Adler,R(2007),Volume13, 11-12. The journal of alternative and complementary medicine
Allopathic practitioners prescribe drugs and balance it for each and every individual nonconformance which causes metabolic syndrome and advises for life style change. Naturopathic practitioners mostly rely on life style changes. Diagnosis systems are same with Allopathic and Naturopathic systems. But when it comes to treatment and specifically on life style changes with diet, there are differences of opinion with individual practitioners. Basically the treatment for metabolic syndrome does not have a sure shot formula; it is mostly dependent on patient cooperation.
Hence for a practitioner treating a metabolic syndrome person is an art during clinical intervention. As Sir William Osler said “… it was more important to know the patient that had the disease, than to know what kind of disease the patient had”. (24-26, July 2006) The Epoch times Diabetes Diabetes found to be a serious metabolic disease. Especially those consuming western diets, this problem is in higher side. When there is a malfunction in insulin producing beta cells of the pancreas, disordered happens in metabolism of carbohydrate, protein and fats.
Due to insulin secretion is very low; cells cannot use the glucose to convert into energy. This glucose circulates in the blood till kidneys excrete. Since the body cannot use glucose available in the blood for converting into energy, it has to burn protein and fat available in the body hence fatigue and weight loss occurs. Type-2 diabetes is associated with metabolic syndrome. Due to age factor the pancreatic function is unable to cope with dietary excess and obesity. In some cases its functions diminishes. Hence an Allopathic practitioner will prescribe drugs and suggest for life style changes.
Naturopathic practitioner will solely depend on intake of diets, natural supplementary diets and life style changes. Obesity Controlling obesity is important in metabolic syndrome. “Those who are overweight should shed excess fat and avoid alcohol, white flour products and white rice, as these make insulin less sensitive”. Needes (2002), Page 257, Naturopathy for self healing, B. Jain publishers. “Any man with a waist greater than 40 inches, or a woman with a waist greater than 35 inches is considered to be at high risk for developing diabetes”. Sethu. S.
(Summer 2004), Web extension to Cleveland Clinic Magazine, Retrieved April 8,2008 from the World Wide Web:http://www. clevelandclinic. org/clevelandclinicmagazine_2004/news/syndrome_x. htm Stress Under stress, adrenal hormones induce the release of fat and sugar into the blood which is used for energy. Those who are not able to handle stress and always with unmanaged abnormal stress, the blood sugar remains high and release of insulin from pancreas is depressed. The people who practice meditation and yoga are able to control and manage stress very well.
It is noted that the persons who change their total life style inclusive of stress management are able to control diabetes than who only change their diets. Stress disrupts normal eating habits. Carbohydrate, Protein and Fat When carbohydrate diets are taken in complex form it breaks into glucose very slowly in the blood. With the continuous conversion of glucose into energy, the sugar level in the blood remains constant. Hence the requirement for insulin becomes lesser. A high complex carbohydrate diet which is high in fiber and low in protein is better than old recommendations of a low carbohydrate, high protein combination.
Low protein diet reduces saturated fats and fibre prevents glucose to from releasing quickly. A calorie level which consists of 70-75% complex carbohydrates, 15% protein and 10-15% fats and oils will ensure very high fibre content and reduces the cholesterol levels. Oats, spelt, corn, barley, peas, beans, fruits and vegetables are rich in carbohydrates. Even some high fibre foods are having high glycaemic rate. Hence these should be avoided. It found effective in an attempt to reduce serum cholesterol and triglycerides in type-2 diabetes when they were administered with fish oils.
But subsequently blood glucose levels increased and insulin sensitivity decreased. Hence at this moment Fish oils to be avoided for diabetes. Also further studies should be conducted in this regard for better understanding and solution. Meat has more phosphorus and sodium levels. These things should be kept very low for diabetic. Hence meat should be avoided as a protein source. To lessen the kidney damage, protein levels need to be kept low and should not be above 15% of total calories in the diet. Needes (2002), Page 259, Naturopathy for self healing, B.
Jain publishers. Moderate exercises improve cholesterol levels and maintains weight. It increases metabolism, blood circulation and reduces the need for insulin consumption by the body. Fenugreek seeds, dandelion root, Goat’s rue, Blueberries and red gum bark are good for insulin production; strengthen the immune system, cholesterol and triglyceride levels are maintained within acceptable limit. Limitations, Challenges and Further research in metabolic syndrome A single clear solution cannot be arrived because of various factors involved in metabolic syndrome.
Even with so much of research in diet for metabolic syndrome, there are differences with practitioners on combination of low and high carbohydrates, proteins and it depends on individuals who have different life style. Further research should give us clear idea of this combination. A common index value to be arrived based on the laboratory findings of triglycerides, HDL, hypertension, abdominal, obesity, glucose intolerance and insulin resistance. Based on that index value a single drug with different combinations to be invented to control metabolic syndrome.
Research should be carried towards this direction to avoid many treatment aspects involved in MS. Conclusion Till then it is strongly recommended that public should be educated regarding Balanced Glycemic Index (GI) and Glycemic Load (GL) to help in their diet planning to have a better control on their metabolic syndrome. References Codario. A ( 2007),Type 2 Diabetes, Pre-diabetes and the Metabolic Syndrome, Humana Press Inc. US. Needes (2002) Naturopathy for self healing- B. Jain publishers Barker, Meletis (2003) Natural treatment for metabolic syndrome
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