Analysis of Green Open Space (gos) Demand in Makassar City, Indonesia: Essay Fountain

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The phenomenon of urban temperature is a phenomenon that occurs in many cities in the world, including Makassar. Therefore, green open space (GOS) either private or public demand to be developed. This study tries to analyze the condition and the demand of GOS in Makassar City especially in Tamalate Subdistrict. This research used primary and secondary data which analyzed by using Gerarkis method 1974 and quantitative descriptive analysis. The results showed that the area of GOS in Tamalate Subdistrict in 2005 was 1, 063. 97 ha or 42. 6% while in 2013, it was 769. 22 ha or 30. 9% and it was 661. 05 ha or 26. 5% in 2016. These data indicate that GOS demand is still sufficient. In addition, the results show that there has been an increase in GOS demand from 2005-2016 to 0. 4 ha or about 0. 04 ha per year. Meanwhile, there has been a decline in the amount of GOS area in Tamalate Subdistrict from 2005 to 2015 with an area of 402. 92 ha or about 36. 63 ha every year. Therefore, GOS demand to be continuously improved and conserved in order to increase the human health.


Reforestation is a highly desirable activity, considering that at this time Global Warming has a devastating effect on Earth and the living creatures in it. One greening that can be done is to create a Green Open Space, both private and public. At present, problems in urban areas are too difficult to overcome including in Indonesia. In Indonesia, rapid growth and rapid development occurred in big cities, caused by the increase of population which gives a lot for the environment. This requires the construction of facilities and City Infrastructure.

If referring to the Law Number 26 of 2007 on the spatial arrangement, the area of Green Open Space must reach 30% of the total area of the City. The proportion of Green Open Space in urban areas is at least 30% consisting of 20% public green open spaces and 10% comprising private green open spaces.

One of the largest cities in Indonesia, such as the city of Makassar, in fact, the development of city facilities and infrastructure requires the availability of Green Open Space. Development in the City is increasingly rapidly inversely proportional to the availability of Green Open Space.

In the development of Green Open Space in the city, the existences are very vulnerable to changes in function. Open space not only serves to develop social interaction within a region but also plays an important role in maintaining the ecological system of the environment as a whole in addition to supporting the formation of environmental aesthetic elements. Green Open space is a key to City life that must be protected and managed to meet various purposes. Theoretically referred to as open space is a space that serves as the container for human life, either individually or in groups, and other creature containers to live and develop sustainably. Green Open Space in urban areas is part of the arrangement of a landscape, urban forest, recreation, sports, cemetery, farm, yard/yard, green belt and others. In terms of ownership, GOS is differentiated into public GOS and private GOS. Public Green Open Space is a GOS owned and managed by the municipal government that is used for the benefit of society in general. Private GOS is a community-owned and privately owned GOS planted with plants. GOS as a container overgrown with green plants.

The objectives of GOS are:

  1. Maintaining the availability of land as a water catchment area;
  2. Creating urban planology aspects through a balance between the natural environment and the built environment used for the benefit of the community;
  3. Improving the compatibility of urban environments as a means of securing a safe, comfortable, fresh, beautiful and clean urban environment, health, ecological functions, and reduction of urban heat effects.

Therefore, Ministerial Regulation Number 5 the Year 2008 regulates as follows:

  1. Green open space in an urban area consists of Public GOS and private GOS;
  2. the proportion of GOS in urban areas is at least 30% consisting of 20% of public green open spaces and 10% comprising private green open spaces;
  3. If the area of GOS both public and private in the city concerned has a total area greater than the prevailing laws or regulations, then the proportion must be monitored to maintain its existence.

The size is a minimum size, which can guarantee human urban oxygen demand. The oxygen requirement for humans can be calculated that humans oxidize 3000 calories per day from food and use about 600 liters of oxygen and produce about 480 liters of CO2.

Research method

This research was conducted in 2016 in Tamalate Sub-District of Makassar City, South Sulawesi, Indonesia. Methode used is overlay method using ArcGIS 10. 3. The data used in this research are:

  1. satellite image data, which then analyzed logically and systemically to know the demand of GOS and its distribution;
  2. Secondary data, obtained from various sources such as government agencies, private agencies, and journals;
  3. Primary data obtained by recording, shooting using digital cameras, checking and measuring directly in the field. Primary data is also used to check the accuracy of image interpretation.

In addition to image analysis, also used GOS demand analysis based on oxygen demand.


  1. The use of oxygen only humans, cattle, and motor vehicles.
  2. Everyone consumes the same amount of oxygen every day, which is 600 liters or 0. 864 kg per day.
  3. Oxygen supply is only done by plants.

This research used a quantitative descriptive analysis method with the analytical technique used to analyze the result by describing or describing the existing condition at the time of research done. The data obtained are the percentage of GOS requirement, green open space map, green open space, and level of green open space requirement based on population number.

To determine the extent of GOS by population, done by multiplying the total population served by broad standards GOS per capita in accordance with applicable regulations.


The results show that in general the demand of GOS for Tamalate Sub-district are still being met. However, there are concerns, as this study also found that there has been an increase in the need for GOS from 2005-2016 to 0. 4 ha or about 0. 04 ha per year. Meanwhile, there has also been a decline in the amount of GOS area in Tamalate Subdistrict from 2005-2015 with an area of 402. 92 ha or about 36. 63 ha per year. Therefore, it is certain that someday, there will be a shortage of GOS in the region and its surroundings, as has been the case in Pacitan. In Pacitan City there has been a GOS shortage of 17. 06% of the total area. This means that the new Pacitan is fulfilled by 12. 94% based on the regulation of the ministry environment living that every city area must consist of 30% GOS.

The addition of the current GOS urban area is less likely due to urbanization. The phenomenon that causes changes in the use of green or open land into a wake area. Not only in urban areas, but this phenomenon is also outside the city like in North Luwu. There is a reduction of a protected area of the year 2007-2011 by 64 ha, then from 2011-2014 amounted to 34 ha. These changes not only apply in cities or in the mountains but also occur in coastal areas such as reduced mangrove areas in various regions.

The situation, of course, will have an impact on the phenomenon of climate change such as changes in rainfall patterns, rising temperatures, decreased water quality, development of epidemics such as dengue fever.


Based on the results of the previous analysis, it can be drawn the conclusion as follows: Area of GOS in Sub Tamalate, in 2005 that is 1. 063. 01 ha or 42. 6%, 2013 is 769. 22 ha or 30. 9% and in 2016 that is 661. 05 ha or 26. 5% of the total area Tamalate Subdistrict. Meanwhile, the total population of 144. 458 people in 2005, 183. 039 people in 2013, and 190. 694 people in 2016. Means that the oxygen demand for Tamalate Subdistrict currently still fulfilled. However, the results also show that from 2005 to 2016 the average decrease in the area of Tamalate Subdistrict GOS is about 36. 63 ha per year or 6%. So, it can be predicted for the next few years Tamalate Sub-district is already lacking green open space. Therefore, it is necessary to have the local government policy to improve the arrangement of green open space, besides the need to be increased again the provision of green open space in every housing and green open space which is now retained.

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