Axis I and II Disorders in Children

Axis I Disorders include the following: “adjustment disorders, anxiety disorders, dissociative disorders, eating disorders, impulse-control disorders, mood disorders, personality disorders, psychotic disorders, sleep disorders, as well as, somatoform disorders” (American Psychiatric Association et. al., 2000, pp. 345 – 730).
“Axis II”, on the other hand, covers the following conditions: “personality disorders, mental retardation, as well as, autism” (American Psychiatric Association et. al., 2000, pp. 27 – 134 & 679 – 730).
Furthermore, “Axis II” disorders may already emerge during an individual’s childhood life while “Axis I” disorders usually present itself during the stage of adulthood (American Psychiatric Association et. al., 2000, pp. 1 – 744).

Moreover, “Axis II’s” symptoms linger awhile longer than the clinical manifestations of “Axis I” and that “Axis II” disorders may negatively impact ones’ life since interaction may be more difficult as compared with “Axis I” (American Psychiatric Association et. al., 2000, pp. 1 – 744).
In addition to that, “medical attention is necessitated when it comes to principal disorders” which are covered in “Axis I” (American Psychiatric Association et. al., 2000, pp. 1 – 744). “Axis II” on the other hand, are those “shaping the current response to the Axis I problem” (American Psychiatric Association et. al., 2000, pp. 1 – 744). It may also influence the individual to the “Axis I” dilemma (American Psychiatric Association et. al., 2000, pp. 1 – 744).
Differences in Treatment Approaches
The differences in treatment approaches are as follows: “Anxiety and phobic disorders” may be treated through the following techniques: “desensitization, flooding, relaxation” (De Jongh et. al., 1999, pp. 69 – 85). “Obsessive-compulsive disorder” may be address through the following techniques: “relaxation and relapse-prevention” (McKay, 1997, pp. 367 – 369). “Depressive disorders” are treated the “cognitive behavioral technique, as well as, relaxation” (Ackerson, 1998, pp. 685 – 690).
“Conduct disorders” are addressed through “positive reinforcement” and “extinction” (Bailey, 1996, pp. 352 – 356). “Hyperactivity syndromes” are treated by the following techniques: “time out, positive reinforcement, and extinction” (Quay, 1997, n.p.). “Pervasive developmental disorders” are addressed by the following techniques as well: “time out, positive reinforcement, and extinction” as well as, “aversive techniques” (Bristol-Power et al., 1999, pp. 435 – 438).
“Encopresis/enuresis” is treated through “positive reinforcement” (Boon et. al., 1991, pp. 355 – 371). The treatments for “Mental Retardation” are the following: “positive reinforcement, extinction and time-out, prompting and shaping, as well as, aversive techniques” (Jones, 2006, pp. 115 – 121). “Tics” are treated by massed practice (Sand et. al., 1973, pp. 665 – 670).
Working with Different Children from Axis I, Axis II, or Both
In case I would need to address a child’s case wherein Axis I and Axis II Disorders both occur at the same time, I will make sure to consider the “development of cognitive, social, and motor skills” (American Psychiatric Association et. al., 2000, pp. 1 – 744). In addition, “the one that initiated evaluation or clinical is regarded as the principal diagnosis” (American Psychiatric Association et. al., 2000, pp. 1 – 744).
Most Important Things to Consider when Working with Children
The most important things to take into consideration when working with children are the following: first of all, the ethical and professional issues that emerges in mental health work with children; second, the culture that the child and his or her family believes / practices / grew up in; third, the proper treatment/intervention; fourth include the following contemporary structure of “services, evidence-based practice, and psychopharmacology” (American Psychiatric Association et. al., 2000, pp. 1 – 744).
References

Ackerson, J. et. al., (1998). Cognitive Bibliotherapy for Mild and Moderate Adolescent
Depressive Symptomatology. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 66: 685 – 690.
American Psychiatric Association, American Psychiatric Association, American Psychiatric
Association Task Force on DSM-IV. (2000). Diagnostic and Statistic Manual of Mental Disorders: DSM-IV-TR. VA: American Psychiatric Publishing.
Bailey, V.F.A. (1996). Intensive Interventions in Conduct Disorders. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 74: 352 – 356.

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