Lesson 1 Assignment Questions Describe the scientific system by which plants are classified, in a report of up to 500 words. In this report, Cover: *the significance of the binomial system *why common names of plants should not be used to correctly identify plants. The scientific system to classify and naming plants are controlled and coordinated by botanist throughout the world. The system of classification in plants is to classify them in groups with similar characteristics. Then continue to divide and sub-group until you have one type of plant in each group.
The main level of division in plants are as follows: Plants are divided into PHYLA (singular: phylum) Phyla can be divided into DIVISIONS Divisions are divided into CLASSES Classes are divided into ORDERS Orders are divided into FAMILIES Families are divided into GENERA (singular: genus) GENERA are divided into SPECIES Species are sometimes divided into VARIETIES The concept of the binomial system was introduced by Carolus Linnalus (1707-1778) in 1753 for flowering plants. The system gives each plant a name which is made up of two parts.
The first part is called the generic name (or genus) and always starts with a capital. The second part is the specific name (or epithet) and always comes after the generic name. The specific name always starts with lower case, unless it is name after a person or place. The reason common names should not be used is that some common names are given to more than one plant creating confusion when communication about plants. Using botanical names allow identification worldwide. Common names can verify from one country to the next.
Answer each of the following briefly. A. What are the major divisions found in the plant kingdom? The major divisions found in the plant kingdom is Phyla, Division, Classes, orders, Families, Genera, Species and Varieties. B. List the basic differences between angiosperms and gymnosperms. The basic difference is that angiosperms are a flowering, seed plant produce seeds within a fruit, while the gymnosperms are naked seed bearing. The gymnosperms have seeds that are not enclosed by an ovary of fruit. C. Define the meaning of the terms
Family: A taxonomic category of related organisms ranking below an order and above a genus. A family usually consists of several genera. Genus: A taxonomic category ranking below a family and above a species and generally consisting of a group of species exhibiting similar characteristics. In taxonomic nomenclature the genus name is used, either alone or followed by a Latin adjective or epithet, to form the name of a species. Species: a. A fundamental category of taxonomic classification, ranking below a genus or subgenus and consisting of related organisms capable of interbreeding. b.
An organism belonging to such a category, represented in binomial nomenclature by an uncapitalised Latin adjective or noun following a capitalized genus name, as in Ananas comosus, the pineapple, and Equus caballus, the horse. Subspecies: A taxonomic subdivision of a species consisting of an interbreeding, usually geographically isolated population of organisms. Variety: A taxonomic subdivision of a species consisting of an interbreeding, usually geographically isolated population of organisms. Cultivar: A race or variety of a plant that has been created or selected intentionally and maintained through cultivation.
D. Give the scientific names of 10 different plant species not mentioned elsewhere to date in this course. For each, indicate which family they belong to, which name is the genus, which is the species and (if applicable) which is the variety or cultivar. Name:Syzygium australecultivar Family: MyrataceaeGenus:SyzygiumSpecies: S. australe Name:Viola hederaceacultivar Family: ViolaceaeGenus:ViolaSpecies: V. hederacea Name:Hardenbergia violaceacultivar Family: FabaceaeGenus:HardenbergiaSpecies: H. violacea Name:Acacia vertillata Family: MimosaceaeGenus:AcaciaSpecies: A. verticillata
Name:Bulbine bulbosa Family: LiliaceaeGenus:BulbineSpecies: B. bulbosa Name:Pultenaea dentata Family: FabaceaeGenus:PultenaeaSpecies: P. dentata Name:Dichelachne rara Family: PoaeceaeGenus:DichelachneSpecies: D. rara Name:Diuris orientis Family: OrchidaceaeGenus:DiurisSpecies: D. orientis Name:Leptospermum scoparium Family: MyrataceaeGenus:LeptospermumSpecies: L. scoparium Name:Wahlenbergia gracilenta Family: CampanulaceaeGenus:WahlenbergiaSpecies: W. gracilenta 3. What is the horticultural significance of juvenility, maturity and senescence in the developmental cycle of a plant.
The horticultural significant of juvenility, maturity and senescence in the developmental cycle of a plant is each stages allows different advantages of the plant. The ability for juvenile stage to be influence allows propagators to vegetatively propagate cuttings longer, while to reduce this stage allows flower and fruit growers to reduce their production costs and an earlier crop or return on investment. Because at this stage it has its most rapid rate of growth and has the ability to initiate adventitious roots readily, this is decreased or lost as the plant matures.
Maturity is significant for those wanting to see the results of their breeding programs or a harvest from the plants e. g. seeds and fruits. A plant is considered mature when it has the potentially capacity to reproduce. Reproduction from cuttings at this stage is reduced or the plant has no longer got the ability to form adventitious roots. Senescence is referred to the process involving the deterioration of the plant or its organs prior to death. To be able to control or delay this stage allows for a longer harvest time e. g. fruit and flowers. . Answer each of the following questions briefly. A. Describe the structure of the basic plant cell. Explain the function of the different cell organelles. The basic plant cell structure is made many layers which primary consist of three components being the middle lamellum, primary cell wall and secondary cell wall. There are many cell organelles: Nucleus stores the genetic component (chromosomes) of the particular cell. Plastids are collective terms for organelles that carry pigments. Ribosome’s are responsible for the synthesis of proteins.
Mitochondria are there to break down the complex carbohydrates and sugars into usable forms for the plant. Golgi Body transports chemical substances in and out of the cell. Endoplasmic Reticulum is the link between the nucleus and the cytoplasm of the plant cell. Vacuoles are used for storage and help to regulate turgor pressure of the plant cell. Peroxisomes is to assist chloroplasts in undergoing photorespiration process. They also contain certain oxidative enzymes. B. Define the term “Plant Tissue”. Describe the characteristics and basic role of tissue found in flowering plants.
Plant Tissue is the references to a collective function of large tracts of cells with similar structure. Plant tissues come in two basic types Meristematic tissues and Permanent tissue. The meristematic basic role is to actively divide and differentiate into various cell types. After the Meristematic cells have divide they develop into Permanent tissue. Permanent tissue can be classified into simple or complex. C. Draw and label the cross section of a leaf to show epidermis, xylem, phloem, stomata and parenchyma. “See Attached”
D. Draw and label a cell diagram to show all parts you can remember without referring to your notes. “See Attached” 5. Answer the following question briefly. A. State the internal differences between monocotyledons and dicotyledons. There are numerous differences between monocotyledons and dicotyledons. |Monocotyledons |Dicotyledons | |A large number of vascular bundles |A limited umber of vascular bundles | |The vascular bundles are scattered in the |The vascular bundles are arranged in a ring | |Parenchyma tissue. | | |Between the cortex and pith there is no |There is a clear distinguish between the corted | |Distinction. And the pith | |No secondary thickening |Secondary thickening can occur | |No annual rings are formed |Due to secondary thickening annual rings are | | |formed | |No cambium occurs between the xylem and |Cambium occurs between the xylem and the | |The phloem. Phloem. | B. How can strengthening tissue establish in monocotyledons in order for perennial growth to occur? The stem strengthening occurs by the many vascular bundles being scattered, rather than in a ring, with support for the bundles being surrounded by extensive fibres. “See Attached” for 14 plants, 7 review sheets.