BIO681 Seminar In MCDN : Essay Fountain

Question:

You will need to consider the economic, social and environmental benefits that will arise if your solution is successfully developed, and conclude with the impact that your solution will have on world food security.

Think about: 

Does your food security solution address an important problem?

Is there a contribution to public policy formulation and debate?

Will the proposed solution maximise economic, environmental, social, health and/or cultural benefits?

Describe the expected outcomes and likely impact of the proposed research.

How will the anticipated outcomes from your solution contribute to the solving the problem?

 

Answer:

Introduction

The climatic changes that are taking place all over the world are witnessed by the residents of both the developing as well as the developed countries. The climatic changes maintained within the world are generally attributed to the changes in the environment and the disturbance that is observed in the ecological balances that is maintained within the nature. However as stated by Koerber, Bader and Leitzmann (2017) the high rates of production and the consumption of the meat products have further contributed to changes in the climatic conditions since it aids the increase in the amount of emissions of the greenhouse gases or the GHGs and the expenditure of the energy as well. In order to take care of the adverse issues that are faced in the climatic changes due to the huge consumption of meat, various strategies have been proposed. One of the key strategies that might be implemented in this regard refers to the activities of motivating the general public to lessen the consumption of animal meat as well as participate and organize campaigns to create an awareness on the deterioration of the climatic factors due to the negative impacts of the high consumption of meat. It might be stated in this regard that the afore-mentioned proposed solution might face a plethora of barriers and challenges in case of practical implementation. The following paper attempts an analysis of the effect of the large-scale consumption of animal proteins on the climate changes. The essay further discusses the several solutions that are proposed in this regard as well as highlights the promotion of the food security as is observed in the particular community.

 

The existent literature stated that there are several proposed solutions for resolving the issues that have been highlighted in terms of the increase in the meat consumption. The opinions of González, Frostell and Carlsson-Kanyama (2011), for example, have been directly focused on the evaluation of the impact of the use of the energies alongside the emissions of the greenhouse gases or the GHGs as have been resultant from the several food items that are consumed. The study by González, Frostell and Carlsson-Kanyama (2011) was based on the evaluation of 84 edible items. The items were evaluated on the basis of the emissions of the greenhouse gases or the GHGs and the usage of the energies that had taken place in both the non-refrigerated transit as well as the refrigerated transit conditions. The study revealed the fact that the emissions of the greenhouse gases or the GHGs and the usage of the energies were higher in case of the animal foods as compared to the plant-based foods. Thus, engagement towards the increase in the efficiency in case of the production and the consumption of the animal-based foods and the development of the international and the national policies in presenting a shift to the focus on the food items that are derived from the plants might be proposed to be one of the responses to the climatic changes being negatively impacted by the production and  the consumption of the plant-based food items. The reduction in the entire consumption might in turn lead to the deficiency in the health conditions as well. The experts on the other hand claim that the protein deficiency as have been highlighted by the medical practitioners tend to have been a result of the lack of variety in the food items consumed and not in the lack of the food that is faced by a section of the global residents. In short it might be stated that the study undertaken by González, Frostell and Carlsson-Kanyama (2011) had proposed the introduction of the concepts of food item convenience following the identification of the increase in the emissions of the greenhouse gases or the GHGs. On the contrary, Reynolds et al. (2015) shed light on the effect of the effectiveness highlighted through the sustainable diets in the lowering of the emissions of the greenhouse gases or the GHGs. The methods that were implemented by Reynolds et al. (2015) in terms of the sustainability evaluation of the food items is more rigorous as compared to the studies by González, Frostell and Carlsson-Kanyama (2011).

 

The study by Reynolds et al. (2015) compared the emission of the greenhouse gases or the GHGs of 88 foods that are commonly consumed to the energy content of the concerned food item. The comparison revealed that the red meat as is consumed by the people is known to have a high consumption rate per unit. The study further revealed that a higher rate of relative emission is observed in the conditions wherein a low portion size of vegetables and fruits is consumed. The rate of relative emission was observed to be different in case of dairy product consumption as well. The energy emissions in cased of the animal-based products are often found to be high as compared to the plant-based products. The results of the study assisted in defining sustainable diets to be a combination of the nutritional compositions based on the effect of the same on the environment as well. von Koerber, Bader and Leitzmann (2017), on the other hand defined sustainable diets to be wholesome meals that have a lower preference for foods that are processed and to be inclusive of the plant-based food. Thus, the discussion opens the scope of future research on convenience foods and the impact of the same on the improvement of the climatic conditions as well.

Moreover, Macdiarmid, Douglas and Campbell (2016) attempts a query into the public awareness regarding the effects of the food habits on the climate and the public intent to put forth a reduction in the meat consumption as well. the study relied on the interviews and the focus groups regarding the major issues as are discussed in the study. The results of the study highlighted the fact that the consumption of meat was intimately related to the social and personal values. This was seconded by the researches that were undertaken by Graça, Calheiros and Oliveira (2014) who further state that lowering meat consumption was not the intention of the concerned people. Macdiarmid, Douglas and Campbell (2016) further opined that the meat consumption had been an issue for the entire population and is not linked to any single socio-economic group. The study, in accord to the studies by González, Frostell and Carlsson-Kanyama (2011) suggested the development of health policies that would be more realistic and would present the issues through an approach that would be staged.

 

Stehfest et al. (2008) argued that the dietary changes might impact the implication of important policies as well as the mitigation policies of the climate changes apart from having a beneficial effect on the land usage across the globe as well as the human health. The results of the study indicated that the increase in the consumption of the plant-based food and the reduction of the animal-based food affects the land usage. The study puts forth the fact that the transition would help in the reduction of the production of nitrous oxide and methane due to the abandonment of the croplands.  The study thus implies that the reduction in the meat consumption within the world might further lead to a proper equilibrium in the CO2 levels as are faced by the planet. The researches further highlight that high meat-consumption is detrimental in nature. However, the perception of people is not subject to change on the basis of the scientific evidences. Thus, it might be stated that the activists must aim at putting forth the changes that are necessary for the betterment of the environment with a better focus on the reduction of meat consumption among the general public.

Laestadius et al. (2013) aims at the involvement of the various non-governmental organizations in order to put forth a greater awareness regarding of the issues in the climate change as have been highlighted by the use of the various food items. As opposed to the viewpoints and course of action proposed by Macdiarmid, Douglas and Campbell (2016), Laestadius et al. (2013) sheds light on the roles played by the non-governmental organizations in bringing about a change in the perception of the people regarding the effect of meat consumption on the climate change. Laestadius et al. (2013) implemented the descriptive qualitative approach in analyzing the actions of the non-governmental organizations regarding the acknowledgement and the spread of the awareness among the people regarding the ill-effects of meat consumption on the climatic changes taking place all over the world. The major drawback of the study lies in the lack of efforts in terms of the policies. The governmental bodies as have been presented within the world are thus advised to look into the creation and the implementation of the policies in order to arrest the ill-effects of meat consumption on the climatic changes. Altermatt (2010) further highlighted that the changes in the diet plans might further lead to the compensation for the phonological changes that have been taking place in the global scenarios.

 

The major gaps that have been highlighted in terms of the global literature on the impact of meat consumption refer to the lack of the governmental policies for the resolution of the issues. According to the opinions of Bogueva, Marinova and Raphaely (2017), the governmental bodies should be advised to involve themselves in the matters that are related to the reduction in the consumption of meat among the residents of the nation. The reduction in the consumption of meat would lead to the reduction of the animal farming within the country. This in turn would lead to an increment in the overall development of the biodiversity within the area along with the protection of the flora and the fauna within the area. This would further lead to the preservation of the ecological diversity within the given organization. Stoll-Kleemann and Schmidt (2017) further argue on the fact that the reduction in the meat consumption among the residents of the world would further lead to the conditions wherein the climatic changes that have been taking place can be reversed to some extent. It might be stated in this regard that the world population has demonstrated a high growth in terms of the number of the vegans. The vegans refer to the people who tend to refrain from the consumption of the animal proteins inclusive of animal meat as well as the dairy products. These people generally rely on a wide variety of foods that are majorly derived from plants for their existence. The majority of issues as are highlighted in terms of the climatic factors as are presented within the world are highly affected in a positive manner by the reduction in the meat consumption.  The governmental bodies situated within the territorial boundaries of all the nations of the world are thus advised to promote the vegan culture. This is expected to help in the reduction of the meat consumption on the part of the residents of the particular country. Apostolidis and McLeay (2016) further opine that the agriculture and the rearing of animals for the purpose of meat consumption is responsible for the emission of the greenhouse gases or the GHGs that is equivalent to the emissions that take place due to the combustion of the several transport fuels. The transition of the food habits among the people would thus, help in the reduction of the production of nitrous oxide and methane due to the abandonment of the croplands.  Machovina, Feeley and Ripple (2015) further argue that the reduction in the meat consumption within the world might further lead to a proper equilibrium in the CO2 levels as are faced by the planet. This in turn would help in the reduction of the issues that are faced by the global environment due to the high emission of the greenhouse gases better known as the GHGs. The reduction of the meat consumption might thus be stated to have a progressive effect on the climatic conditions of the planet.

In lieu of the above discussion it can be concluded that the high rates of production and the consumption of the meat products have further contributed to changes in the climatic conditions since it aids the increase in the amount of emissions of the greenhouse gases or the GHGs and the expenditure of the energy as well. In order to take care of the adverse issues that are faced in the climatic changes due to the huge consumption of meat, various strategies have been proposed. a higher rate of relative emission is observed in the conditions wherein a low portion size of vegetables and fruits is consumed. The rate of relative emission was observed to be different in case of dairy product consumption as well. The energy emissions in cased of the animal-based products are often found to be high as compared to the plant-based products. it has further been observed that the protein deficiency as have been highlighted by the medical practitioners tend to have been a result of the lack of variety in the food items consumed and not in the lack of the food that is faced by a section of the global residents. Thus, it might be concluded that the various governmental as well as non-governmental organizations should come together in order to deal with the reduction of the meat consumption as a means to improve the climatic conditions of the earth.

 

References

Altermatt, F. (2010). Tell me what you eat and I’ll tell you when you fly: diet can predict phenological changes in response to climate change. Ecology Letters, 13(12), 1475-1484.

Apostolidis, C., & McLeay, F. (2016). Should we stop meating like this? Reducing meat consumption through substitution. Food policy, 65, 74-89.

Bogueva, D., Marinova, D., & Raphaely, T. (2017). Reducing meat consumption: the case for social marketing. Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, 29(3), 477-500.

González, A. D., Frostell, B., & Carlsson-Kanyama, A. (2011). Protein efficiency per unit energy and per unit greenhouse gas emissions: potential contribution of diet choices to climate change mitigation. Food policy, 36(5), 562-570.

Graça, J., Calheiros, M. M., & Oliveira, A. (2014). Moral disengagement in harmful but cherished food practices? An exploration into the case of meat. Journal of agricultural and environmental ethics, 27(5), 749-765.

Laestadius, L. I., Neff, R. A., Barry, C. L., & Frattaroli, S. (2013). Meat consumption and climate change: the role of non-governmental organizations. Climatic change, 120(1-2), 25-38.

Macdiarmid, J. I., Douglas, F., & Campbell, J. (2016). Eating like there’s no tomorrow: Public awareness of the environmental impact of food and reluctance to eat less meat as part of a sustainable diet. Appetite, 96, 487-493.

Machovina, B., Feeley, K. J., & Ripple, W. J. (2015). Biodiversity conservation: The key is reducing meat consumption. Science of the Total Environment, 536, 419-431.

Reynolds, C. J., Macdiarmid, J. I., Whybrow, S., Horgan, G., & Kyle, J. (2015). Greenhouse gas emissions associated with sustainable diets in relation to climate change and health. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, 74(OCE5).

Stehfest, E., Bouwman, L., Van Vuuren, D. P., Den Elzen, M. G., Eickhout, B., & Kabat, P. (2009). Climate benefits of changing diet. Climatic change, 95(1-2), 83-102.

Stoll-Kleemann, S., & Schmidt, U. J. (2017). Reducing meat consumption in developed and transition countries to counter climate change and biodiversity loss: a review of influence factors. Regional Environmental Change, 17(5), 1261-1277.

von Koerber, K., Bader, N., & Leitzmann, C. (2017). Wholesome nutrition: an example for a sustainable diet. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, 76(1), 34-41.

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