Biology Paper on Evolution of Birds

Scott Lewis Evolution Lab BIO/101 University of Phoenix Evolution Lab The evolution lab report is based the theory of Darwin and Wallace and determining the type of seeds the birds feed on an average rainfall in the island of Galapagos. The birds in this experiment live on the island and survival is not easy and it is baking hot during the day, freezing cold at night and there isn’t much food available. Because of this, the birds have very specialized feeding behaviors. An example of evolution resulting from natural selection was discovered among birds living in the Galapagos Island.
These birds have varieties that vary in what they eat and their appearance. The specialization developed allowed the birds to survive during the dry season or times of drought/low precipitation when little food is available. Then this specialized tool allows the birds to better compete for food resources with other birds and animals. The objective of this experiment is to differentiate and determine what happen when the parameters are changed over time between the Darwin and Wallace report. The first experiment is meant to study the influence of beak size on the birds’ population numbers.
Deep breaks are suited to crack hard seeds, and shallow beaks are better suited for cracking soft seeds. To test out the hypothesis, I was able to change the beak size of Darwin to 17. 0mm and let Wallace Island at 12. 0mm. By doing so, the average beak size rose over time whereas it fluctuates for Wallace. The clutch size was changed from 10 eggs to 30 eggs for Darwin and left at 10 eggs for Wallace as well as population of 600 and 200 respectively. I also wondered about the changes of bird beaks from island to island.

When I changed the cm on the beak, I was able to conclude that these numbers help them adapt to the island and make them more fit to survival on available food. The material that was used to create this hypothesis was accessed through the Evolution Lab on the student website. I was able to change the clutch size as well as the beak because I felt that those where the most important aspects of these experiment. The determine reason for this according to the Darwin and Wallace, is the difference in temperature between summer and winter and the associated consequences for the life of the birds.
The different approach that I used for the clutch size was related to biological characteristics, such as the body weight or environmental factors such as climate. I was able to input the two sizes into the data to come up with the results as far as how the population grows with each size. ================ Input Parameters ================ Parameter DARWIN WALLACE ——————————————- Initial Beak Size: 17. 0 mm 12. 0 mm Heritability: 0. 7 0. 7 Variance: 2. 0 2. 0 Clutch Size: 30. 0 eggs 10. 0 eggs
Precipitation: 27. 0 cm 27. 0 cm Population: 600. 0 birds 200. 0 birds Island Size: 1. 0 km 1. 0 km ==================== Experimental Results ==================== Year Dar Beak Dar Pop | Wal Beak Wal Pop ————————-+——————- 1997 17. 08 600 | 12. 05 200 1998 17. 08 2142 | 12. 11 273 1999 17. 2 833 | 12. 16 401 2000 17. 35 2127 | 12. 27 447 2001 17. 46 866 | 12. 37 610 2002 17. 69 1875 | 12. 47 651 2003 17. 89 1096 | 12. 7 650 2004 18. 0 1924 | 12. 49 746 2005 18. 08 1149 | 12. 65 791 2006 18. 11 1727 | 12. 84 803 2007 18. 2 1280 | 13. 02 788 2008 18. 27 1885 | 13. 25 742 2009 18. 43 1100 | 13. 32 774 2010 18. 64 1999 | 13. 33 726 2011 18. 72 1097 | 13. 48 734 2012 18. 72 1974 | 13. 63 767 2013 18. 85 1063 | 13. 59 883 2014 18. 95 1960 | 13. 69 872 2015 18. 98 1225 | 13. 82 816 2016 19. 1 2039 | 13. 96 806 017 19. 16 1035 | 14. 11 815 2018 19. 27 2030 | 14. 16 805 2019 19. 31 1042 | 14. 34 859 2020 19. 37 2020 | 14. 47 803 2021 19. 41 1149 | 14. 59 908 2022 19. 46 2010 | 14. 69 1003 2023 19. 54 1108 | 14. 9 960 2024 19. 54 2090 | 15. 09 984 2025 19. 65 1000 | 15. 31 956 2026 19. 77 2150 | 15. 37 1049 2027 19. 84 1022 | 15. 41 950 2028 19. 94 2141 | 15. 56 974 2029 20. 03 1028 | 15. 67 961 030 20. 07 2196 | 15. 9 1024 2031 20. 1 924 | 16. 08 1090 2032 20. 15 2230 | 16. 12 989 2033 20. 11 897 | 16. 23 1051 2034 20. 13 2257 | 16. 33 1062 2035 20. 21 877 | 16. 5 1052 2036 20. 24 2286 | 16. 59 1052 2037 20. 23 865 | 16. 72 1094 2038 20. 29 2236 | 16. 83 1097 2039 20. 34 964 | 16. 97 1145 2040 20. 37 2261 | 17. 07 1133 2041 20. 48 916 | 17. 2 1133 2042 20. 52 2251 | 17. 5 1081 2043 20. 57 958 | 17. 37 1052 2044 20. 61 2331 | 17. 5 1095 2045 20. 66 847 | 17. 64 1082 2046 20. 74 2362 | 17. 78 1139 2047 20. 85 861 | 17. 9 1060 2048 20. 88 2518 | 17. 91 1097 2049 20. 82 703 | 18. 04 1160 2050 20. 77 2250 | 18. 16 1238 2051 20. 73 964 | 18. 3 1220 2052 20. 82 2231 | 18. 37 1211 2053 20. 92 930 | 18. 55 1135 2054 20. 96 2302 | 18. 72 1271 2055 21. 913 | 18. 85 1284 2056 21. 2 2254 | 18. 87 1189 2057 21. 28 902 | 18. 96 1224 2058 21. 29 2392 | 19. 09 1210 2059 21. 28 760 | 19. 23 1282 2060 21. 28 2463 | 19. 34 1150 2061 21. 29 735 | 19. 38 1196 2062 21. 38 2416 | 19. 39 1265 2063 21. 52 780 | 19. 47 1299 2064 21. 5 2431 | 19. 49 1268 2065 21. 51 824 | 19. 5 1348 2066 21. 53 2457 | 19. 55 1249 2067 21. 65 758 | 19. 62 1312 068 21. 73 2583 | 19. 65 1216 2069 21. 71 672 | 19. 85 1184 2070 21. 75 2334 | 19. 85 1291 2071 21. 66 870 | 19. 97 1248 2072 21. 68 2375 | 20. 06 1168 2073 21. 73 869 | 20. 12 1319 2074 21. 77 2302 | 20. 14 1316 2075 21. 77 894 | 20. 24 1230 2076 21. 74 2400 | 20. 32 1313 2077 21. 77 885 | 20. 4 1328 2078 21. 76 2316 | 20. 39 1297 2079 21. 78 911 | 20. 41 1343 2080 21. 78 2410 | 20. 5 1339 2081 21. 83 776 | 20. 44 1299 2082 21. 81 2550 | 20. 49 1286 2083 21. 8 712 | 20. 6 1303 2084 21. 88 2356 | 20. 69 1234 2085 21. 88 927 | 20. 75 1328 2086 21. 87 2318 | 20. 65 1347 2087 21. 87 856 | 20. 66 1405 2088 21. 89 2396 | 20. 64 1296 2089 21. 9 875 | 20. 7 1327 2090 21. 93 2161 | 20. 7 1341 2091 22. 0 997 | 20. 74 1405 2092 22. 04 2458 | 20. 69 1328 2093 22. 7 781 | 20. 79 1246 2094 22. 09 2350 | 20. 81 1344 2095 22. 24 854 | 20. 83 1272 2096 22. 36 2432 | 20. 88 1293 2088 21. 98 2146 | 20. 6 1312 2089 22. 07 1051 | 20. 69 1368 2090 22. 14 2286 | 20. 71 1260 2091 22. 19 880 | 20. 83 1323 2092 22. 2 2386 | 20. 87 1316 2093 22. 24 869 | 20. 99 1336 2094 22. 33 2388 | 20. 96 1420 2095 22. 46 839 | 20. 97 1355 2096 22. 52 2362 | 20. 95 1389
In conclusion, the hypothesis was accepted in the fact the environmental factors plays a huge role in the survival of the birds. The clutch size is very important in determining whether the population of the birds goes extinct on either island. Clutch size is the number of eggs that a female bird lays in her nest and in these experiment, birds mate for life and live for one year and each female produces only one clutch of eggs per year. References This is a hanging indent. To keep the hanging indent format, simply delete this line of text using the backspace key, and replace the information with your reference entry.

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