Blood bank Although there are any complicated instruments in the blood bank department, but it’s a very important and sensitive section of the medical laboratory as it deals with donors and acceptors of the blood, it transfer for leukemia and thalasemia patients, new born and cancer patients and so many cases blood bank save their lives. Tests that are carried in this department: 1- Some tests, which included donated free of diseases, serology tests 2- blood grouping 3- rhesus factor”Rh” 4- direct & indirect coombs test 5- cross matching 1-serology tests
To ensure that donated free of infectious diseases as HIV, Hbs, VDRL These tests are rabid tests using a card [pic] 2- blood grouping Red blood cells contain on their surface on Ag A,B, and the have their antibodies in the serum on the same red blood cells. That means, that every blood group can give a specific other group and receive also from a specific one in order to avoid agglutination and so blood clotting. [pic] Method 1: On a slide put two drops of blood- -Add a drop of anti A on the first blood drop, and a drop af anti B on the second blood drop – mix and wait for 2 minutes – observe the agglutination if happened with anti A the blood group is A [pic] You can use a test tube instead of the slide, and then put the tubes in the centrifuge and watch the agglutination found 3- Rhesus factor “Rh” Is a complex antigen “D” found on the red blood cells and has its anti in the serum of the blood. 85 % are Rh + which has D in their blood Its very dangerous if persons, which are Rh negative received Rh positive it makes agglutinations, and may lead to death. Method : -As in the blood grouping -Put a drop of blood + a drop of anti D Mix together, observe the agglutination – -If found any agglutinations, its Rh positive. -direct & indirect coombs test This test is carried out to detect the presence of incomplete antibodies, which would react with double of complete antigen making a clot. And these are very serious and dangerous cases. A- direct coombs test Detect antibodies reactive with RBCs and conjoined Bhaotkon these objects is incomplete and not have the ability to cause coagulation alone and shows Taktherha only after the addition of serum Coombs. This test is very important in diagnosis many cases, the most popular is “Hemolytic anemia of new born”, lead poisoning, some drugs, inherited hemolytic anemia.
Method: -Add drops of blood in a test tube and wash using saline 2-3 times( “wash” as the word means, add saline to the blood and through the filtrate 2-3 times making a bloody suspension) – add 2 drops to the washed Rbcs, and put the tube in the centifuge – examine the formation of any agglutination first with nacked eyes then using microscope. – if found it’s a positive coombs test B- indirect coombs test: to detect the presence of free antigens in the blood, not attached to red blood cells. Method: – prepare a sample of blood group O+ and wash with saline 2-3 times 2- put drops of patient serum in a test tube, add 2 drops of washed O+ blood 3- put in a water bath for 40-60 minutes 4- after 50 minutes add “bovine serum albumin” to the tube 5- wash again with saline 3-4 times 6- add 2 drops of coombs anti human globuline, and then put into centrifuge 7- observe the presence of agglutination 8- if found before add coombs reagent = presence of anti D 9- If found after add coombs reagent= presence of incomplete anti D 10- If not found at all= negative test. [pic] -cross matching The cross matching test is very important in case of blood transfusion from donors to acceptors as the blood group and Rh should be identical to each other. So sample of blood of donor and acceptor is added to each other and checking for any formation of clotting, if found that indicates that they are not suitable for each other At first the blood group and the Rh type is detected before carring out the cross matching, and they should be identical Simply add drop of donor blood + drop of acceptor blood and mix well and watch for agglutinations formed
If any agglutination formed that’s means the donor and acceptor blood are not identical The figure below explain the procedure briefly. [pic] Blood bags colors: For keeping blood bags colors are as follows: Red is the color of blood is used to save the type (o) Yellow color is used to save the blood of type (a) Green color is used to save the blood of type (b) Blue color is used to save the blood of the type (ab) This poster, which shows color should clarify the patient’s name and for keeping the blood bag and the type of preservative and temperature required to save the blood and the name of the hospital blood and date of preparation.
Anticoagulants used in blood bags: Is non-clotting materials added to the blood bags Blood Bag These materials vary its chemical content, which in turn affect the period of keeping the blood. 1 – Material CPD: It knows its components citrate phosphate dextrose and that preserve blood for 21 days after mixing blood, under colder than 2-6 degrees Celsius. 2 – Article CPDA: They are the materials the previous addition of adenine, which in turn kept the blood for 29 days in the same previous methods. 3 – Article CPDA-I: This article reservation blood for 35 days ,save the whole blood.
These three materials used amount of 63 cm ? full unit of blood is added about 400-450 cm ? of whole blood by withdrawing blood from the donor. Where that blood saves temperatures of 2-6 degrees Celsius private refrigerators to save the blood. 4 – SAG-M material or substance ADSOL: used to save the concentrated red blood cells for a period of 42 days degrees cooler than 2-6 degrees Celsius. This method using a 100 cm ? the sag-m or ADSOL be present unit separate from the whole blood units and connected pipe tight and sterile.
As the blood drawn from the donor and mixes textured CPD usual and after by the apartheid regime through centrifugal force refrigerated centrifugation separates blood plasma to the unit empty neighboring unit blood then keep red blood cells concentrated alone which are added directly 100 cm ? of the foregoing adsol / sag-m to keep red blood cells to centralize for a period of 42 days. 5 – Article Djileerool glycerol: Reservation concentrated red blood cells for a period of 15 years or more and under cooler from 65 to 200 degrees Celsius below zero.
This modern way used to freeze red blood cells concentrated from rare species or negative and is dissolving blood frozen after that when usage and the need for washing cells red, textured saline-glucose solution to remove material Djileerool of blood and then later used these red blood cells to patients. The means of blood plasma and sludge near, it is frozen in freezers less degree cold out to about 30 to 35 degrees below zero and one year AD full, but platelets, they kept for five days in a continuous motion to prevent damage, and the degree of conservation of 20-22 degrees Celsius.
Types of Blood Transfusion Blood Transfusion: Full blood transfusion whole blood: The simplest kinds of transport where blood is taken from the donor and kept in the fridge at a temperature close to almost 8 degrees. Which is used during times of emergency, But loses its anti-bleeding elements. Transfer plasma: As we know consists of blood “red blood cells + plasma” If red blood cells transport oxygen. The tasks of the plasma containing elements prevent blood clots. And thus will be useful for many patients and gives better results and faster as patients liver.
As well as a pint of pure plasma is easier on the body of a mixed-liter of whole blood. Transfer platelets: It is relatively more expensive and needs modern major hospitals. Or be separated manually through lab technician but needs a sterile room at 100%, which may be difficult to get it continuously. The mean platelet extract “only” from the donor and returned the rest of the blood “plasma + erythrocytes” donated to the same moment. It is suitable for patients who suffer from a shortage of blood platelets, which help heal wounds. Refrigerators Blood Bank: You will find two types of refrigerators: – refrigerators for keeping blood bags full whole blood: And often have gate transparent glass shelves. Each rack of a particular department or certain species. There is, for example, a special rack Balveselh A-or there is a special rack, Department of Orthopedic.. Each section has a share of the blood bags. There is a special rack emergency. Wharf special surplus “given any section”. Refrigerator temperature appears on a small digital screen. In addition, the average temperature of 8 degrees Celsius. 2 – refrigerators to save plasma bags: temperature of about 43 below zero ..
Because plasma contain elements prevent icing and prevent bleeding and proteins need to lower temperatures to save Blood transfusion bags: Per bag hose blogger called “tube”, Recorded in the book Blood Bank. As an example: No. This bag is hose 123456a .. And on each paper bag writable. Adzun “name of the donor” and “the name of the patient” and “taking blood” and “blood”. Daily and periodically examine the contents of refrigerators of blood bags and review its date. In the event of termination validity blood bag is left out of order execution .. Blood bags execution: Be executed “get rid” of blood in two cases.
Either analyzes showed that the donor patient in one of the viruses “hepatitis or AIDS or syphalis” Or “expiration blood”. Collect the bags to be culled in environmental bags “red”. And closes tightly car to take them medical waste to get rid of them safely through the burning in special containers .. Books of blood transfusion: All data is recorded books, Name of the donor, blood type and result of the analysis and the compatibility and tube. When asked for any blood bag section. The technician or doctor reviewed the book and the contents of the fridge and writes a receipt or revenue blood bag, such as banks completely