Central Javanese Gamelan: How Globalization Influences the Students’ Music Consumption

INTRODUCTION Central Javanese gamelan study has been available in some schools. In some schools do not have Central Javanese gamelan study. In my opinion, it is very unfortunate, because students need to conserve our own traditional music, especially Central Javanese gamelan. So, one of ways to conserve the Central Javanese gamelan, is understand the theory, the history about it. Not only understand the theory and the history, but also understand how to play the Central Javanese gamelan (the implementation). Ki Hadjar Dewantara (as cited in Sumarsam, 2003, p. 68) argued that “put the Javanese art spectacle as an obligated curriculum in Taman Siswa is the most important thing to do. ” Actually, the writer agrees with Ki Hadjar Dewantara’s argument. By putting the Javanese art spectacle as an obligated curriculum, then the students can learn and understand about it. And so is the Central Javanese gamelan. The Central Javanese gamelan is one the Javanese art spectacle. So the students must learn, understand the theory and the implementation of it. Because the Central Javanese gamelan is very important to be preserved, Ki Hadjar Dewantara (as cited in Sumarsam, 2003, p. 68) said that: Gendhings lesson are not only needed to look for the knowledge and the ability (to play) the gendhings, but it is important to generate the life of the inner, because gendhings always guide the rhythmic sense, generate the sense of beauty, and silence a sense of decency. (As mentioned in Sultan Agungan’s teaching, and the teachings of western scholars) (p. 168) What Ki Hadjar Dewantara means here is the students do not only just understand the theory and the implementation, but also the students are demanded to be able to feel the song (gendhing). Usually the students just play the song perfunctorily.
Actually, it is not allowed. While the students are playing the song, they have to try to feel the song. If they can feel the song, their feeling will be peaceful. Besides, if they can feel the song, there will be sense of beauty in the students’ feeling. They will understand how that song can relax them. They will understand how that song can relax their mind, body, and etc. They will understand that every rhythm in the song can make their feeling become calm, because the sound of every rhythm is beautiful. Moreover if the students are able to play it softly, the sound that is produced will be nice for the players and the listeners.
Besides, it is better for them if they can sing the song. CENTRAL JAVANESE GAMELAN Before the writer explains the definition of Gamelan, especially Central Javanese gamelan, the writer will explain about Gendhing. It is important to you to understand about it. It is because gendhing is related to the gamelan. Gendhing is from Javanese language. In Indonesia, gendhing is ‘Lagu’. So, in English, gendhing is ‘Song’. In the gendhing (song), there is a part called ‘Buka’. The definition of buka is the beginning of the song which is played before the real gendhing is played.

Buka in the gendhing can be played by gamelan (bonang barong, kendhang, rebab, gendher, and etc. ) and it can be started by tembang (sindhen). According to Sumarsam (2003), the Javanese priyayi defined gamelan (and so are puppet and traditional dance) as a noble art, or a high valued art (beautiful and noble). So, the Central Javanese gamelan is one of traditional music in Indonesia that must be respected because of its high valued art. Besides, gamelan is a musical unity. What the writer means here is that the gamelan can not be played one by one, including Central Javanese gamelan.
If you do that, then the sound that is produced is not good. You can just hear one, two, or three sounds of the gamelan instruments. For example, if you just play Gong, then the sound that is produced is from the Gong itself. The sound of the Gong is like an echo and the sound is not good to hear. So, it is better for you to play it together. LOCAL CULTURE VS GLOBALIZATION As we know that may teenagers, especially students, do not know and understand about their own local culture. It is because the students are following the new trend. They like following the new trend because they are fraid of being ancient people. As Silaban (2006) said that: Many people accept the changes of civilization as something that is commonplace as a process which must be passed, understood, and its presence causes many changes in its practice. So that, it forces cultural society, willy-nilly or consciously or unconsciously faced with a difficult situation between accepting the changes that civilization (because they do not want to be considered old-fashioned) or reject it in spite of the changes are considered primitive, conventional and orthodox.
Like the writer said before that the students do not want to be considered old-fashioned people. They want to be new ones. They want to be new in fashion, new in technology, new in music, new in culture, and etc. They easily accept the changes. Especially in music, they prefer listening and playing the music from western or eastern to Indonesian music, especially traditional music like gamelan. They always consider gamelan as an ancient music. Whereas, gamelan, especially Central Javanese gamelan is one of our local culture that must be preserved in globalization era.
Cultural globalization is caused by some factors. According to Hutagalung et al. (2007) who studied about cultural globalization amid the national identity problem, argued that it is caused by (1) the development of new technologies; (2) economic globalization of capital, labor, natural resources, production, and consumption; and (3) political factors also played a role, from imperialism and nationalism to totalitarian states and the Cold War; so to did social struggles over the construction of race, class, ethnicity, religion and gender.
The students like consuming (listening) to western or eastern music because the music is cool, the music is easy to listen, and the artists are handsome or beautiful. Therefore, the western or eastern music easily enters Indonesia. Teenager, especially students, prefers attending the concert of their idol stars to attending the gamelan concert or traditional art show. The students have been affected by modern culture. Day by day, the students forget that traditional music, especially gamelan, is their local culture. They do not care as if gamelan (Central Javanese gamelan) is not part of their local culture.
Cultural identity is losing its identity with the arrival of torrent of foreign culture in the form westernization and globalization (Rahman, 2010). It is so unfortunate that we lose our identity. In my opinion, our local culture shows our identity. Western culture is a culture that traded and people in the world generally are only the consumers who enjoy it (Hutagalung, Nugroho, Abiantes et al. , 2007). Actually, the writer agrees with that statement. It proved by the music they listen, the concert they attend, the music they play.
The students only are only consumer of western culture, especially in music. CONCLUSION Although the students prefer listening modern music to traditional music, it is better to them to understand and learn about gamelan, especially Central Javanese gamelan. That is for their knowledge about it. It is important for us to preserve the Central Javanese gamelan because it can avoid from another country’s claim. If we do not preserve it, then the other countries can make a claim that Central Javanese gamelan is their traditional music. There are some ways to preserve our local culture.
Hasiholan (2011) said, “The role of all whole society is needed and their cooperation to one another to preserve local culture to build a national cultural resilience and provide socialization and internalization of local knowledge to build a community that would love the culture and to implement them in everyday life. ” The writer agrees with his statement. We need cooperation from the society, especially students who like consuming the western culture especially music. If the students and the society do the cooperation well, then national cultural resilience will be built strongly.
Besides, Sumarsam (2002) said, “There are gamelan lessons in schools and colleges; there are also schools and academies of gamelan. ” In my opinion, there are some schools which do not have gamelan lessons, so the writer suggests that gamelan lessons must be available in all schools. And the writer recommends that gamelan lessons must be an obligated curriculum. So far, the writer has known many schools and academies of gamelan, such as STKW (Wilwatikta Art High School) in Surabaya, SMK 9 Surabaya, ISI (Indonesian Art Institute), IKJ (Jakarta Art Institute), and etc.
It is first good step to preserve our local culture. Although the curriculum is the different from the art school, but at least there is an obligated curriculum of gamelan lessons. WORKS CITED Hasiholan, S. P. U. (2011, February 28). Peranan budaya lokal mendukung ketahanan budaya nasional. Retrieved from http://www. scribd. com/doc/49525067/Makalah-ilmu-Budaya-Dasar-Peranan-Budaya-Lokal-Mendukung-Ketahanan-Budaya-Nasional Hutagalung, N. P. ,et al. (2007). Globalisasi budaya ditengah masalah identitas nasional. Yogyakarta: Universitas Pembangunan Nasional “Veteran”. Retrieved from http://feelsafat. files. wordpress. om/2007/12/globalisasi-budaya-ditengah-masalah-identitas-nasional. pdf Rahman, D. M. , et al. (2010). Makna Bhinneka Tunggal Ika sebagai Bingkai Budaya Ke-Indonesia-an. Kementerian Kebudayaan dan Pariwisata. Silaban, S. P. (2006, November 26). Budaya lokal vs budaya global : Sanggupkah ?. Retrieved from http://www. silaban. net/2006/11/26/budaya-lokal-vs-budaya-global-sanggupkah/ Sumarsam. (2003). Gamelan: Interaksi budaya dan perkembangan musikal di jawa. (p. 168). Yogyakarta: Pustaka Pelajar. . (2002). Introduction to javanese gamelan. Retrieved from http://sumarsam. web. wesleyan. edu/Intro. gamelan. pdf

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