Chapter 9 Psychology Notes

Chapter 9 Psychology Thinking? Cognition: All mental activities associated with processing understanding and communicating Concept: A mental grouping of similar object events and people Prototype: mental imagine that incorporate all the features that we associate with the concept How do we solve problems? Algorithms: Step by step procedure that guarantees a solution. How does it work? Heuristics: Quicker, more efficient but more prone to error. “Rule of Thumb” Strategy Insight: When you have a sudden flash of inspiration. Johnny Appleton and construction workers.
Obstacles to Problem Solving Confirmation Bias: When we search for information that confirms our beliefs Fixation: Inability to see a problem from a fresh perspective Functional Fixedness: When we perceive the function of object as fixed and unchanging. Thinking is also affected by Overconfidence: Our tendency to overestimate the accuracy of our knowledge and judgment Framing: The way an issue is presented Belief Perseverance: Our Inclination to hold on to over belifeinspite of evidence that contradicts them. Language Our spoken written, or gestured words and the way we combine them.
How do we acquire it? Babble at 4 months Distinct babbling at 10 months 1 year 1 word sentence Two year say two word sentences. Girls babble before boys, and say sentence before boys too and follows into Elementary school. Three Theories of Language Development Skinner: believes we talk because of Association. Imitation, Reinforcement Chomsky: believes we are pre-wired for language with a LAD (Language Acquisition Device) Whorf: Linguistic Determinism different languages impose difference realities Animal Intelligence Do animals think? They can solve problems and make tools.

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Do animals have language? They can learn human sign language and communicate with each other. Hunger Hunger pangs Blood sugar drops Release of hormone orexin Hunger may affect -Thinking -Mood -Behavior Set Point – the point at which out weight is set Basal Metabolic Rate – the rate at which your body expends energy to maintain basic body functions Sexual Orientations Long term enduring sexual attraction to the same sex 3-4% of men are homosexual 1-2% of women are homosexual LeVays’s Research – Measured a cluster of cells in brains to determine their sexual orientation.

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