Pubic hair (both girls and boys) Facial hair and deepened voice (boys) Breasts develop and widened hips (girls) Girls start to menstruate (monthly period) Rapid growth in height and weight (boys) Hair grows in the armpits and on the legs Oil – secreting glands in the skin become over Language Birth to 3 months Recognizes the care and familiar objects Makes noises e. G. Ongoing and gurgling – active Communication and Often sucks or licks lips when he or she hears sound of food preparation Cries with anger to show they are tired, hungry and to say they need changing 4 to 6 months Babies become more aware of others so that they can communicate more Begin to use vowels, consonants and syllable sounds e. G. ‘ah’, ‘e away Imitates sound he or she can hear and reacts to the tone of someone’s voice 6 to 9 months Babble becomes tuneful Begin to understand words like ‘up’, ‘down’ raising their arms to be lifted up Repeats sounds 9 to 12 months Can follow simple instructions e. G. Kiss teddy Word approximations appear e. G. He haw’ to indicate a donkey Tuneful babbling develops into ‘Jargon’ Child begins to talk with a words and sign language Enjoys trying to sing as well as listening to songs and rhymes Echo’s the last part of ha others say Gestures develop alongside words Over – extends the use of words e. G. All animals are called ‘doggie’ Spend a great deal of energy naming things at what they do Can follow simple instruction or request Begin to use plurals, pronouns, adjectives, possessives, times words, tenses and sentences Enjoys much more complicated stories Past, present and future tenses are used more often Can be taught to say his or her own name, address and age 5 to 8 years
Tries to understand the meaning of words and uses adverbs and prepositions Begins to understand book language and that stories have characters and a plot Begins to be able to define objects by their function 8 toll years Uses and understand complex sentences Uses reference books with increasing skill A child can write stories that show imagination and are increasingly legible and grammatically correct 12 to 19 years The young person has a fast, legible style of handwriting Communicates in an adult manner with increasing maturity Can process text and abstract meaning, relate word meanings and contexts, understand punctuation and form complex syntactic structures Intellectual development Is startled by loud noise Makes sounds e. G. Cooing Stares at surroundings, especially large moving objects Prefers looking at patterns and representations of a human face Recognizes different speech sounds Baby can imitate low or high pitched sounds 4 to 6 months Enjoys bright colors and likes to look at complicated things Can develop favorite tastes in foods and the differences Baby can coordinate more e. G. If a baby sees a rattle he or she will grasp the rattle and put the rattle in his or her mouth 6 to 12 months Understands signs e. The bib means the food is coming Shows that he or she knows objects exist even when they have gone out of sight Has some understanding of the daily routine Memory develops and the baby can remember some of the past Understands the name to objects and can tallow simple instructions through trial and error Begins to scribble on paper Often talks to him or herself while playing Can learn Has improved memory skills which help his or her understanding of concepts Understands cause and effect The child pretend plays The child talks Becomes fascinated by cause and effect and the child is continually trying to explain hat goes on in the world Can recognize his or her own name when it is written down and can usually write it 5 to 8 years When the child is communicating the child will use body language , facial gestures and language is well developed The child will use their voice in different ways to play different characters in role play Child includes more detail in his or her drawings e. G. Souse may have windows, roof, curtains and a chimney Begins to establish the difference between what is real and what is unreal/fantasy 8 to 11 years Learning to plan ahead and evaluate what they do Can deal with abstract ideas Can concentrate on tasks for increasing periods Child may be curious about drugs, alcohol and tobacco May develop special talents 12 to 19 years Start to plan ahead, often in a systematic way Thinking beyond conventional limits – thinking about issues that generally preoccupy human beings in adulthood, such as morality, religion and politics Social and Emotional Development Begins to develop a social smile Enjoys playing with other people and may cry when they stop playing Becomes more communicative and expressive with face and body Imitates some movements and facial expressions
Begins to display a social smile Enjoys playing with others Becomes expressive and communicates more with the face and body Drawn to its own image in mirrors Turns to look at speaker when he or she hears a voice Particularly attached to voice of mother Begins to show signs of personality Cries when parent or familiar caregiver leaves 6 to 9 months Become increasingly aware of the world around him or her Start to grab onto things Hits objects to hear the sound they make and develop a better control of their body and their actions. Develop stranger anxiety This is when they snow signs to distress hen they do not recognize a person near them or their parents are out of the room.
Emotional attachment to parents Appears to be shy or anxious with strangers May cry when parent/care leaves Enjoys imitation Test parental responses to their behavior Repeats sounds or gestures Becomes more communicative and expressive with face and body Imitates movements and facial expressions Develops a sense of security Begins to have a longer memory Enjoys being able to walk and is eager to try and get dressed 3 to 4 years Follows simple directions Shows some understanding of right and wrong Compares themselves to others Develops friendships and interact with other children Engages in pretend play Gets afraid easily Shows a sense of humor The child can hide their feeling once they have started to control them The child has responsibility e. G. The child may help younger children The child can think of the feelings for others The child begins to see things form another child’s point of view, but may have trouble understanding their needs and feelings of other people The child prefers to spend leisure time with friends and participate in small groups of the same sex
Becomes discouraged easily The young person want to become liked and accepted often feel that they are misunderstood May become self-conscious or worried about physical changes such as too short, fat, tall etc. Young person tends to identify more with friends and begins to be separated from parents Moral Development Birth – 3 years Is sensitive to adult approval and disapproval, despite tantrums and bursts of anger