Code of Ethics for Government Officials and Employees

REPUBLIC ACT NO. 6713 Code of Ethics for Government Officials and Employees AN ACT establishing a Code of Conduct and Ethical Standards for public officials and employees, to uphold the time-honored principle of public office being a public trust, granting incentives and rewards for exemplary service, enumerating prohibited acts and transactions and providing penalties for violations thereof and for other purposes Sec. 1. Title. This Act shall be known as the “Code of Conduct and Ethical Standards for Public Officials and Employees. Sec. 2. Declaration of Policies. It is the policy of the State to promote a high standard of ethics in public service. Public officials and employees shall at all times be accountable to the people and shall discharge their duties with utmost responsibility, integrity, competence, and loyalty, act with patriotism and justice, lead modest lives, and uphold public interest over personal interest. Sec. 3. Definition of Terms. As used in this Act, the term: (a) ‘Government’ includes the National Government, the local governments, and all other instrumentalities, agencies or branches of the Republic of the Philippines including government-owned or controlled corporations, and their subsidiaries. •(b) ‘Public Officials’ includes elective and appointive officials and employees, permanent or temporary, whether in the career or non-career service, including military and police personnel, whether or not they receive compensation, regardless of amount. (c) ‘Gift’ refers to a thing or a right to dispose of gratuitously, or any act or liberality, in favor of another who accepts it, and shall include a simulated sale or an ostensibly onerous disposition thereof. It shall not include an unsolicited gift of nominal or insignificant value not given in anticipation of, or in exchange for, a favor from a public official or employee. (d) ‘Receiving any gift’ includes the act of accepting directly or indirectly, a gift from a person other than a member of his family or relative as defined in this Act, even on the occasion of a family celebration or national festivity like Christmas, if the value of the gift is neither nominal nor insignificant, or the gift is given in anticipation of, or in exchange for, a favor. •(e) ‘Loan’ covers both simple loan and commodatum as well as guarantees, financing arrangements or accommodations intended to ensure its approval. (f) ‘Substantial stockholder’ means any person who owns, directly or indirectly, shares of stock sufficient to elect a director of a corporation. This term shall also apply to the parties to a voting trust. •(g) ‘Family of public officials or employees’ means their spouses and unmarried children under eighteen (18) years of age. •(h) ‘Person’ includes natural and juridical persons unless the context indicates otherwise. (i) ‘Conflict of interest’ arises when a public official or employee is a member of a board, an officer, or a substantial stockholder of a private corporation or owner or has a substantial interest in a business, and the interest of such corporation or business, or his rights or duties therein, may be opposed to or affected by the faithful performance of official duty. •(j) ‘Divestment’ is the transfer of title or disposal of interest in property by voluntarily, completely and actually depriving or dispossessing oneself of his right or title to it in favor of a person or persons other than his spouse and relatives as defined in this Act. (k) ‘Relatives’ refers to any and all persons related to a public official or employee within the fourth civil degree of consaguinity or affinity, including bilas, inso and balae. Sec. 4. Norms of Conduct of Public Officials and Employees. (A) Every public official and employee shall observe the following as standards of personal conduct in the discharge and execution of official duties: •(a) Commitment to public interest – Public officials and employees shall always uphold the public interest over and above personal interest.
All government resources and powers of their respective offices must be employed and used efficiently, effectively, honestly and economically, particularly to avoid wastage in public funds and revenues. •(b) Professionalism – Public officials and employees shall perform and discharge their duties with the highest degree of excellence, professionalism, intelligence and skill. They shall enter public service with utmost devotion and dedication to duty.
They shall endeavor to discourage wrong perceptions of their roles as dispensers or peddlers of undue patronage. •(c) Justness and sincerity – Public officials and employees shall remain true to the people at all times. They must act with justness and sincerity and shall not discriminate against anyone, especially the poor and the underprivileged. They shall at all times respect the rights of others, and shall refrain from doing acts contrary to law, good morals, good customs, public policy, public order, public safety and public interest.

They shall not dispense or extend undue favors on account of their office to their relatives whether by consaguinity or affinity except with respect to appointments of such relatives to positions considered strictly confidential or as members of their personal staff whose terms are coterminous with theirs. •(d) ) Political neutrality – Public officials and employees shall provide service to everyone without unfair discrimination and regardless of party affiliation or preference. •(e) Responsiveness to the public – Public officials and employees shall extend prompt, courteous, and adequate service to the public.
Unless otherwise provided by law or when required by the public interest, public officials and employees shall provide information of their policies and procedures in clear and understandable language, ensure openness of information, public consultations and hearings whenever appropriate, encourage suggestions, simplify and systematize policy, rules and procedures, avoid red tape and develop an understanding and appreciation of the socio-economic conditions prevailing in the country, especially in the depressed rural and urban areas. (f) Nationalism and patriotism – Public officials and employees shall at all times be loyal to the Republic and to the Filipino people, promote the use of locally produced goods, resources and technology and encourage appreciation and pride of country and people. They shall endeavor to maintain and defend Philippine sovereignty against foreign intrusion. •(g) Commitment to democracy – Public officials and employees shall commit themselves to the democratic way of life and values, maintain the principle of public accountability, and manifest by deeds the supremacy of civilian authority over the military.
They shall at all times uphold the Constitution and put loyalty to country above loyalty to persons or party. •(h) Simple living – Public officials and employees and their families shall lead modest lives appropriate to their positions and income. They shall not indulge in extravagant or ostentatious display of wealth in any form. (B) The Civil Service Commission shall adopt positive measures to promote (1) observance of these standards including the dissemination of information rograms and workshops authorizing merit increases beyond regular progression steps, to a limited number of employees recognized by their office colleagues to be outstanding in their observance of ethical standards; and (2) continuing research and experimentation on measures which provide positive motivation to public officials and employees in raising the general level of observance of these standards. Sec. 5. Duties of Public Officials and Employees. In the performance of their duties, all public officials and employees are under obligation to: •(a) Act promptly on letters and requests. All public officials and employees shall, within fifteen (15) working days from receipt thereof, respond to letters, telegrams or other means of communications sent by the public. The reply must contain the action taken on the request. •(b) Submit annual performance reports. – All heads or other responsible officers of offices and agencies of the government and of government-owned or controlled corporations shall, within forty-five (45) working days from the end of the year, render a performance report of the agency or office or corporation concerned.
Such report shall be open and available to the public within regular office hours. •(c) Process documents and papers expeditiously. – All official papers and documents must be processed and completed within a reasonable time from the preparation thereof and must contain, as far as practicable, not more than three (3) signatories therein. In the absence of duly authorized signatories, the official next-in-rank or officer in charge shall sign for and in their behalf. •(d) Act immediately on the public’s personal transactions. All public officials and employees must attend to anyone who wants to avail himself of the services of their offices and must, at all times, act promptly and expeditiously. •(e) Make documents accessible to the public. – All public documents must be made accessible to, and readily available for inspection by, the public within reasonable working hours. Sec. 6. System of Incentives and Rewards. A system of annual incentives and rewards is hereby established in order to motivate and inspire public servants to uphold the highest standards of ethics. For this purpose, a Committee on Awards to Outstanding Public
Officials and Employees is hereby created composed of the following: the Ombudsman and Chairman of the Civil Service Commission as Co-Chairmen, and the Chairman of the Commission on Audit, and two government employees to be appointed by the President, as members. It shall be the task of this Committee to conduct a periodic, continuing review of the performance of public officials and employees, in all the branches and agencies of Government and establish a system of annual incentives and rewards to the end that due recognition is given to public officials and employees of outstanding merit on the basis of the standards set forth in this Act.
The conferment of awards shall take into account, among other things, the following: the years of service and the quality and consistency of performance, the obscurity of the position, the level of salary, the unique and exemplary quality of a certain achievement, and the risks or temptations inherent in the work. Incentives and rewards to government officials and employees of the year to be announced in public ceremonies honoring them may take the form of bonuses, citations, directorships in government-owned or controlled corporations, local and foreign scholarship grants, paid vacations and the like.
They shall likewise be automatically promoted to the next higher position with the commensurate salary suitable to their qualifications. In case there is no next higher position or it is not vacant, said position shall be included in the budget of the office in the next General Appropriations Act. The Committee on Awards shall adopt its own rules to govern the conduct of its activities. Sec. 7. Prohibited Acts and Transactions.
In addition to acts and omissions of public officials and employees now prescribed in the Constitution and existing laws, the following shall constitute prohibited acts and transactions of any public official and employee and are hereby declared to be unlawful: •(a) Financial and material interest. – Public officials and employees shall not, directly or indirectly, have any financial or material interest in any transaction requiring the approval of their office. •(b) Outside employment and other activities related thereto. – Public officials and employees during their incumbency shall not: 1.
Own, control, manage or accept employment as officer, employee, consultant, counsel, broker, agent, trustee or nominee in any private enterprise regulated, supervised or licensed by their office unless expressly allowed by law; 2. Engage in the private practice of their profession unless authorized by the Constitution or law, provided, that such practice will not conflict or tend to conflict with their official functions; or 3. Recommend any person to any position in a private enterprise which has a regular or pending official transaction with their office.
These prohibitions shall continue to apply for a period of one (1) year after resignation, retirement, or separation from public office, except in the case of subparagraph (b) (2) above, but the professional concerned cannot practice his profession in connection with any matter before the office he used to be with, in which case the one-year prohibition shall likewise apply. •(c) Disclosure and/or misuse of confidential information. – Public officials and employees shall not use or divulge, confidential or classified information officially known to them by reason of their office and not made available to the public, either: 1.
To further their private interests, or give undue advantage to anyone; or 2. To prejudice the public interest. •(d) Solicitation or acceptance of gifts. – Public officials and employees shall not solicit or accept, directly or indirectly, any gift, gratuity, favor, entertainment, loan or anything of monetary value from any person in the course of their official duties or in connection with any operation being regulated by, or any transaction which may be affected by the functions of their office.
As to gifts or grants from foreign governments, the Congress consents to: 1. The acceptance and retention by a public official or employee of a gift of nominal value tendered and received as a souvenir or mark of courtesy; 2. The acceptance by a public official or employee of a gift in the nature of a scholarship or fellowship grant or medical treatment; or 3.
The acceptance by a public official or employee of travel grants or expenses for travel taking place entirely outside the Philippine (such as allowances, transportation, food, and lodging) of more than nominal value if such acceptance is appropriate or consistent with the interests of the Philippines, and permitted by the head of office, branch or agency to which he belongs. The Ombudsman shall prescribe such regulations as may be necessary to carry out the purpose of this subsection, including pertinent reporting and disclosure requirements.
Nothing in this Act shall be construed to restrict or prohibit any educational, scientific or cultural exchange programs subject to national security requirements. Sec. 8. Statements and Disclosure. Public officials and employees have an obligation to accomplish and submit declarations under oath of, and the public has the right to know, their assets, liabilities, net worth and financial and business interests including those of their spouses and of unmarried children under eighteen (18) years of age living in their households. A) Statements of Assets and Liabilities and Financial Disclosure. – All public officials and employees, except those who serve in an honorary capacity, laborers and casual or temporary workers, shall file under oath their Statement of Assets, Liabilities and Net Worth and a Disclosure of Business Interests and Financial Connections and those of their spouses and unmarried children under eighteen (18) years of age living in their households.
The two documents shall contain information on the following: •(a) real property, its improvements, acquisition costs, assessed value and current fair market value; •(b) personal property and acquisition cost; •(c) all other assets such as investments, cash on hand or in banks, stocks, bonds, and the like; •(d) liabilities, and; •(e) all business interests and financial connections. The documents must be filed: •(a) within thirty (30) days after assumption of office; •(b) on or before April 30, of every year thereafter; and •(c) within thirty (30) days after separation from the service.
All public officials and employees required under this section to file the aforestated documents shall also execute, within thirty (30) days from the date of their assumption of office, the necessary authority in favor of the Ombudsman to obtain from all appropriate government agencies, including the Bureau of Internal Revenue, such documents as may show their assets, liabilities, net worth, and also their business interests and financial connections in previous years, including, if possible, the year when they first assumed any office in the Government.
Husband and wife who are both public officials or employees may file the required statements jointly or separately. The Statements of Assets, Liabilities and Net Worth and the Disclosure of Business Interests and Financial Connections shall be filed by: 1. Constitutional and national elective officials, with the national office of the Ombudsman; 2. Senators and Congressmen, with the Secretaries of the Senate and the House of Representatives, respectively; Justices, with the Clerk of Court of the Supreme Court; Judges, with the Court Administrator; and all national executive officials with the Office of the President. . Regional and local officials and employees, with the Deputy Ombudsman in their respective regions; 4. Officers of the armed forces from the rank of colonel or naval captain, with the Office of the President, and those below said ranks, with the Deputy Ombudsman in their respective regions; and 5. All other public officials and employees, defined in Republic Act No. 3019, as amended, with the Civil Service Commission. (B) Identification and disclosure of relatives. It shall be the duty of every public official or employee to identify and disclose, to the best of his knowledge and information, his relatives in the Government in the form, manner and frequency prescribed by the Civil Service Commission. (C) Accessibility of documents. 1. Any and all statements filed under this Act, shall be made available for inspection at reasonable hours. 2. Such statements shall be made available for copying or reproduction after ten (10) working days from the time they are filed as required by law. 3.
Any person requesting a copy of a statement shall be required to pay a reasonable fee to cover the cost of reproduction and mailing of such statement, as well as the cost of certification. 4. Any statement filed under this Act shall be available to the public for a period of ten (10) years after receipt of the statement. After such period, the statement may be destroyed unless needed in an ongoing investigation. (D) Prohibited acts. – It shall be unlawful for any person to obtain or use any statement filed under this Act for: •any purpose contrary to morals or public policy; or (b) any commercial purpose other than by news and communications media for dissemination to the general public. Sec. 9. Divestment. A public official or employee shall avoid conflicts of interest at all times. When a conflict of interest arises, he shall resign from his position in any private business enterprise within thirty (30) days from his assumption of office and/or divest himself of his shareholdings or interest within sixty (60) days from such assumption.
The same rule shall apply where the public official or employee is a partner in a partnership. The requirement of divestment shall not apply to those who serve the Government in an honorary capacity nor to laborers and casual or temporary workers. Sec. 10. Review and Compliance Procedure. •(a) The designated Committees of both Houses of the Congress shall establish procedures for the review of statements to determine whether said statements which have been submitted on time, are complete, and are in proper form.
In the event a determination is made that a statement is not so filed, the appropriate Committee shall so inform the reporting individual and direct him to take the necessary corrective action. •(b) In order to carry out their responsibilities under this Act, the designated Committees of both Houses of Congress shall have the power within their respective jurisdictions, to render any opinion interpreting this Act, in writing, to persons covered by this Act, subject in each instance to the approval by affirmative vote of the majority of the particular House concerned.
The individual to whom an opinion is rendered, and any other individual involved in a similar factual situation, and who, after issuance of the opinion acts in good faith in accordance with it shall not be subject to any sanction provided in this Act. •(c) The heads of other offices shall perform the duties stated in subsections (a) and (b) hereof insofar as their respective offices are concerned, subject to the approval of the Secretary of Justice, in the case of the Executive Department and the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, in the case of the Judicial Department.
Sec. 11. Penalties. •Any public official or employee, regardless of whether or not he holds office or employment in a casual, temporary, holdover, permanent or regular capacity, committing any violation of this Act shall be punished with a fine not exceeding the equivalent of six (6) months’ salary or suspension not exceeding one (1) year, or removal depending on the gravity of the offense after due notice and hearing by the appropriate body or agency. If the violation is punishable by a heavier penalty under another law, he shall be prosecuted under the latter statute.
Violations of Sections 7, 8 or 9 of this Act shall be punishable with imprisonment not exceeding five (5) years, or a fine not exceeding five thousand pesos (P5,000), or both, and, in the discretion of the court of competent jurisdiction, disqualification to hold public office. •Any violation hereof proven in a proper administrative proceeding shall be sufficient cause for removal or dismissal of a public official or employee, even if no criminal prosecution is instituted against him. Private individuals who participate in conspiracy as co-principals, accomplices or accessories, with public officials or employees, in violation of this Act, shall be subject to the same penal liabilities as the public officials or employees and shall be tried jointly with them. •The official or employee concerned may bring an action against any person who obtains or uses a report for any purpose prohibited by Section 8 (D) of this Act. The Court in which such action is brought may assess against such person a penalty in any amount not to exceed twenty-five thousand pesos (P25,000).
If another sanction hereunder or under any other law is heavier, the latter shall apply. Sec. 12. Promulgation of Rules and Regulations, Administration and Enforcement of this Act. The Civil Service Commission shall have the primary responsibility for the administration and enforcement of this Act. It shall transmit all cases for prosecution arising from violations of this Act to the proper authorities for appropriate action: Provided, however, That it may institute such administrative actions and disciplinary measures as may be warranted in accordance with law.
Nothing in this provision shall be construed as a deprivation of the right of each House of Congress to discipline its Members for disorderly behavior. The Civil Service Commission is hereby authorized to promulgate rules and regulations necessary to carry out the provisions of this Act, including guidelines for individuals who render free voluntary service to the Government. The Ombudsman shall likewise take steps to protect citizens who denounce acts or omissions of public officials and employees which are in violation of this Act.
Sec. 13. Provisions for More Stringent Standards. Nothing in this Act shall be construed to derogate from any law, or any regulation prescribed by any body or agency, which provides for more stringent standards for its official and employees. Sec. 14. Appropriations. The sum necessary for the effective implementation of this Act shall be taken from the appropriations of the Civil Service Commission. Thereafter, such sum as may be needed for its continued implementation shall be included in the annual General Appropriations Act.
Sec. 15. Separability Clause. If any provision of this Act or the application of such provision to any person or circumstance is declared invalid, the remainder of the Act or the application of such provision to other persons or circumstances shall not be affected by such declaration. Sec. 16. Repealing Clause. All laws, decrees and orders or parts thereof inconsistent herewith, are deemed repealed or modified accordingly, unless the same provide for a heavier penalty. Sec. 17. Effectivity.
This Act shall take effect after thirty (30) days following the completion of its publication in the Official Gazette or in two (2) national newspapers of general circulation. Approved, February 20, 1989. *** PRESIDENTIAL DECREE No. 1152 PHILIPPINE ENVIRONMENTAL CODE WHEREAS, the broad spectrum of environment has become a matter of vital concern to the government; WHEREAS, the national leadership has taken a step towards this direction by creating the National Environmental Protection Council under Presidential Decree No. 121; WHEREAS, it is necessary that the creation of the Council be implemented with the launching of a comprehensive program of environmental protection and management; WHEREAS, such a program can assume tangible and meaningful significance only by establishing specific environment management policies and prescribing environment quality standards in a Philippine Environment Code: NOW, THEREFORE, I, FERDINAND E. MARCOS, President of the Republic of the Philippines, by virtue of the powers vested in me by the Constitution, do hereby order and decree: Section 1.
Short Title. This Decree shall be known and cited as the “Philippine Environment Code. ” TITLE I AIR QUALITY MANAGEMENT Section 2. Purposes. The purposes of this Title are: (a) to achieve and maintain such levels of air quality as to protect public health; and (b) to prevent to the greatest extent practicable, injury and/or damage to plant and animal life and property, and promote the social and economic development of the country. Chapter I Standards Section 3.
Ambient Air Quality Standards. There shall be established ambient air quality standards which shall prescribe the maximum concentration of air pollutants permissible in the atmosphere consistent with public health, safety and general welfare. In the establishment of ambient air quality standards, factors such as local atmospheric conditions, location and land use, and available technology, shall be considered among others. Section 4. National Emission Standards.
There shall be established national emission standards for new and existing stationary and mobile sources of pollution which shall consider among others such factors as type of industry, practicable control technology available, location and land use, and the nature of pollutants emitted. Section 5. Community Noise Standards. Appropriate standards for community noise levels shall be established considering, among others, location, zoning and land use classification. Section 6. Standards for Noise-Producing Equipment.
There shall be established a standard for noise producing equipment such as construction equipment, transportation equipment, stationary engines, and electrical or electronic equipment and such similar equipment or contrivances. The standards shall set a limit on the acceptable level of noise emitted from a given equipment for the protection of public health and welfare, considering among others, the magnitude and condition of use, the degree of noise reduction achievable through the application of best available technology and the cost of compliance.
The Installation of any noise-producing equipment shall conform with the requirements of Presidential Decree No. 1096 and other applicable laws as well as their implementing rules and regulations. Section 7. Aircraft Emission and Sonic Booms. Appropriate government agencies shall encourage research studies on the harmful effects of aircraft emissions in the environment in order to establish permissible emission standards. Research and studies shall also be undertaken to mitigate and/or minimize the effects of sonic booms in the environment. Chapter II
Regulation and Enforcement Section 8. Air Quality and Noise Standards. The National Pollution Control Commission in coordination with appropriate government agencies shall be responsible for the enforcement of ambient air quality emission and noise standards, including the monitoring and surveillance of air pollutants, licensing and permitting of air pollution control facilities, and the promulgation of appropriate rules and regulations. Existing air quality emission and noise standards may be revised and/or modified consistent with new development and technology.
Section 9. Aircraft Noise. Community noise standards around airports shall be implemented by the Civil Aeronautics Administration in coordination with the National Pollution Control Commission. Section 10. Vehicular Emissions. The Land Transportation Commission, in coordination with the National Pollution Control Commission, shall implement emission standards for motor vehicles and may deputize other appropriate law enforcement agencies for the purpose. Section 11. Radioactive Emissions.
The release and emission of radioactivity into the environment incident to the establishment or possession of nuclear energy facilities and radioactive materials, handling, transport, production, storage, use and disposal of radioactive materials shall be regulated by the Philippine Atomic Energy Commission in coordination with other appropriate government agencies. Chapter III Monitoring Section 12. Air Quality Monitoring. The National Pollution Control Commission, in coordination with appropriate government agencies, shall stablish to the greatest extent practicable an air quality monitoring network. Such air quality monitoring network shall put to maximum use the capabilities of these agencies. The National Environmental Protection Council shall be furnished with the results of air quality monitoring activities. Section 13. Weather Modification. The Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration shall monitor regularly meteorological factors affecting environmental conditions in order to effectively guide air pollution monitoring activities.
Activities relating to weather modification such as rainfall stimulation and storm seeding experiments shall be undertaken in consultation and/or in coordination with the Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Service Administration. TITLE II WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT Section 14. Purpose. It is the purpose of this Title to prescribe management guidelines aimed to protect and improve the quality of Philippine water resources through: (a) classification of Philippine waters; b) establishment of water quality standards; (c) protection and improvement of the quality of the Philippine water resources, and (d) responsibilities for surveillance and mitigation of pollution incidents. Chapter I Classification and Standards Section 15. Classification of Philippine Waters. The National Pollution Control Commission, in coordination with appropriate government agencies, shall classify Philippine waters, according to their best usage.
In classifying said waters, the National Pollution Control Commission shall take into account, among others, the following: (a) the existing quality of the body of water at the time of classification; (b) the size, depth, surface area covered, volume, direction, rate of flow, gradient of stream; and (c) the most beneficial uses of said bodies of water and lands bordering them for residential, agricultural, commercial, industrial, navigational, recreational, and aesthetic purposes.
Section 16. Reclassification of Waters Based on Intended Beneficial Use. Where the public interest so requires, the National Pollution Control Commission, in coordination with appropriate government agencies, shall reclassify a body of water based on the intended beneficial use and take such steps as may be necessary to upgrade the quality of said water.
Other government agencies may adopt higher standards for a particular body of water, subject to the approval of the National Pollution Control Commission. Section 17. Upgrading of Water Quality. Where the quality of water has deteriorated to a degree where its state will adversely affect its best usage, the government agencies concerned shall take such measures as may be necessary to upgrade the quality of such water to meet the prescribed water quality standards. Section 18. Water Quality Standards.
The National Pollution Control Commission shall prescribe quality and effluent standards consistent with the guidelines set by the National Environmental Protection Council and the classification of waters prescribed in the preceding sections, taking into consideration, among others, the following: (a) the standard of water quality or purity may vary according to beneficial uses; and (b) the technology relating to water pollution control. Chapter II Protection and Improvement of Water Quality Section 19. Enforcement and Coordination.
The production, utilization, storage and distribution of hazardous, toxic and other substances such as radioactive materials, heavy metals, pesticides, fertilizers, and oils, and the disposal, discharge and dumping of untreated wastewater, mine tailings and other substances that may pollute any body of water of the Philippines resulting from normal operations of industries, water-borne sources, and other human activities as well as those resulting from accidental spills and discharge shall be regulated by appropriate government agencies pursuant to their respective charters and enabling legislations.
In the performance of the above functions, the government agencies concern shall coordinate with the National Environmental Protection Council and furnish the latter with such information as may be necessary to enable it to attain its objectives under Presidential Decree No. 1121. Section 20. Clean-up Operations. It shall be the responsibility of the polluter to contain, remove and clean up water pollution incidents at his own expense.
In case of his failure to do so, the government agencies concerned shall undertake containment, removal and clean-up operations and expenses incurred in said operations shall be charged against the persons and/or entities responsible for such pollution. Section 21. Water Quality Monitoring and Surveillance. The various government agencies concerned with environmental protection shall establish to the greatest extent practicable a water quality surveillance and monitoring network with sufficient stations and sampling schedules to meet the needs of the country.
Said water quality surveillance network shall put to maximum use the capabilities of such government agencies. Each agency involved in such network shall report to the National Environmental Protection Council the results of these monitoring activities as the need arises. TITLE III LAND USE MANAGEMENT Section 22. Purpose. The purposes of this Title are: a) to provide a rational, orderly and efficient acquisition, utilization and disposition of land and its resources in order to derive therefrom maximum benefits; and (b) to encourage the prudent use and conservation of land resources in order to prevent and imbalance between the nation’s needs and such resources. Section 23. National Land Use Scheme. The Human Settlements Commission, in coordination with the appropriate agencies of the government, shall formulate and recommend to the National Environmental Protection Council a land use scheme consistent with the purpose of this Title.
The Land Use Scheme shall include among others, the following: (a) a science-based and technology-oriented land inventory and classification system; (b) a determination of present land uses, the extent to which they are utilized, underutilized, rendered idle or abandoned; (c) a comprehensive and accurate determination of the adaptability of the land for community development, agriculture, industry, commerce and other fields of endeavor; (d) a method of identification of areas where uncontrolled development could result in irreparable damage to important historic, cultural, or aesthetic values, or natural systems or processes of national significance; (e) a method for exercising control by the appropriate government agencies over the use of land in areas of critical environmental concern and areas impacted by public facilities including, but not limited to, airports, highways, bridges, ports and wharves, buildings and other infrastructure projects; (f) a method to ensure the consideration of regional development and land use in local regulations; (g) policy for influencing the location of new communities and methods for assuring appropriate controls over the use of land around new communities; (h) a system of controls and regulations pertaining to areas and development activities designed to ensure that any source of pollution will not be located where it would result in a violation of any applicable environmental pollution control regulations; and (i) a recommended method for the periodic revisions and updating of the national land use scheme to meet changing conditions. Section 24. Location of Industries.
In the location of industries, factories, plants, depots and similar industrial establishments, the regulating or enforcing agencies of the government shall take into consideration the social, economic, geographic and significant environmental impact of said establishments. TITLE IV NATURAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT AND CONSERVATION Section 25. Purposes. The purposes of this Title are: (a) to provide the basic policy on the management and conservation of the country’s natural resources to obtain the optimum benefits therefrom and to preserve the same for the future generations; and (b) to provide general measures through which the aforesaid policy may be carried out effectively. Chapter I Fisheries and Aquatic Resources Section 26. Management Policy.
The National government, through the Department of Natural Resources, shall establish a system of rational exploitation of fisheries and aquatic resources within the Philippine territory and shall encourage citizen participation therein to maintain and/or enhance the optimum and continuous productivity of the same. Section 27. Measures for National Exploitation. Measures for the national exploitation of fisheries and other aquatic resources may include, but shall not be limited to, the following: (a) undertaking manpower and expertise development; (b) acquiring the necessary facilities and equipment; (c) regulating the marketing of threatened species of fish or other aquatic esources; (d) reviewing all existing rules and regulations on the exploitation of fisheries and aquatic resources with a view of formulating guidelines for the systematic and effective enforcement thereof; and (e) conserving the vanishing species of fish and aquatic resources such as turtles, sea snakes, crocodiles, corals, as well as maintaining the mangrove areas, marshes and inland waters, coral reef-areas and islands serving as sanctuaries for fish and other aquatic life. Chapter II Wildlife Section 28. Management Policy. The national government through the Department of Natural Resources, shall establish a system of rational exploitation and conservation of wildlife resources and shall encourage citizen participation in the maintenance and/or enhancement of their continuous productivity. Section 29. Measures for Rational Exploitation.
Measures for rational exploitation of wildlife resources may include, but shall not be limited to, the following: (a) regulating the marketing of threatened wildlife resources. (b) reviewing all existing rules and regulations on the exploitation of wildlife resources with a view of formulating guidelines for the systematic and effective enforcement thereof; and (c) conserving the threatened species of fauna, increasing their rate of reproduction, maintaining their original habitat, habitat manipulation, determining bag/creel limits, population control in relation to the carrying capacity of any given area, banning of indiscriminate and/or destructive means of catching or hunting them. Chapter III Forestry and Soil Conservation
Section 30. Management Policy for Forestry. The national government, through the Department of Natural Resources, shall undertake a system of rational exploitation of forest resources and shall encourage citizen participation therein to keep the country’s forest resources at maximum productivity at all time. Section 31. Measures for Rational Exploitation of Forest Resources. Measures for the rational exploitation of forest resources may include, but shall not be limited to, the following: (a) regulating the marketing of threatened forest resources; (b) reviewing all existing rules and regulations on the exploitation of forest resources with a view of ormulating guidelines for the systematic and efficient enforcement thereof; (c) conserving threatened species of flora as well as increasing their rate of propagation; the banning of destructive modes of exploitation, kaingin making or shifting cultivation, indiscriminate harvesting of minor forest products the recycling methods of waste materials, and (d) carrying out a continuing effect on reforestation; timber stand improvement; forest protection; land classification; forest occupancy management; agri-silviculture; range management; agri-silvicultural/kaingin management; industrial tree plantation; parks and wildlife management; multiple use forest; timber management and forest research. Section 32. Use of Fertilizers and Pesticides. The use of fertilizers and pesticides in agriculture shall be regulated prescribing therefor a tolerance level in their use.
Their use shall be monitored by appropriate government agencies to provide empirical data for effective regulation. Section 33. Management Policy on Soil Conservation. The national government, through the Department of Natural Resources and the Department of Agriculture, shall likewise undertake a soil conservation program including therein the identification and protection of critical watershed areas, encouragement of scientific farming techniques, physical and biological means of soil conservation, and short-term and long-term researches and technology for effective soil conservation. Chapter IV Flood Control and Natural Calamities Section 34. Measures in Flood Control Program.
In addition to the pertinent provisions of existing laws, the following shall be included in a soil erosion, sediment and flood control program; (a) the control of soil erosion on the banks of rivers, the shores of lakes, and the seashores; (b) the control of flow and flooding in and from rivers and lakes; (c) the conservation of water which, for purposes of this Section shall mean forms of water, but shall not include captive water; (d) the needs of fisheries and wildlife and all other recreational uses of natural water; (e) measures to control the damming, diversion, taking, and use of natural water, so far as any such act may affect the quality and availability of natural water for other purposes; and (f) measures to stimulate research in matters relating to natural water and soil conservation and the application of knowledge thereby acquired. Section 35. Measures to Mitigate Destructive Effects of Calamities.
The national government, through the Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration, shall promote intensified and concerted research efforts on weather modification, typhoon, earthquake, tsunami, storm surge, and other tropical natural phenomena in order to bring about any significant effect to mitigate or prevent their destructive effects. Chapter V Energy Development Section 36. Policy. Consistent with the environmental protection policies, the national government, through the Energy Development Board, shall undertake an energy development program encouraging the utilization of invariant sources such as solar, wind and tidal energy. Section 37. Measures for Energy Development.
Measures for energy development program may include, but shall not be limited to, the following: (a) setting up of pilot plants utilizing invariant sources of energy; (b) training of technical personnel for purposes of energy development; and (c) conducting researches aimed at developing technology for energy development. Section 38. Safety Measures on Energy Development. Rules and regulations shall be promulgated to prevent or mitigate the adverse effects of energy development on the environment. For this purpose, all nuclear powered plants exploring and utilizing geothermal energy, whether owned or controlled by private or government entities shall: (a) observe internationally accepted standards of safety; and (b) provide safety devices to ensure the health and welfare of their personnel as well as the surrounding community. Chapter VI Conservation and Utilization of Surface and Ground Waters Section 39. Management Policy.
In addition to existing laws, the national government through the National Water Resources Council in coordination with other appropriate government agencies, shall prescribe measures for the conservation and improvement of the quality of Philippine water resources and provide for the prevention, control and abatement of water pollution. Chapter VII Mineral Resources Section 40. Management Policy. – The national government, through the Department of Natural Resources, shall undertake a system of gainful exploitation and rational and efficient utilization of mineral resources and shall encourage citizen participation in this endeavor. Section 41.
Measures for Exploitation and Utilization of Mineral Resources. Measures for the gainful exploitation and rational and efficient utilization of such mineral resources may include, but shall not be limited to the following: (a) increasing research and development in mineral resources technology; (b) training of additional technical manpower needed in geology, geophysics, mining engineering, and related fields; (c) regulating the exploitation of identified mineral reserves; (d) accelerating the exploration of undiscovered mineral deposits; and (e) encouraging the establishment of processing plants for refined metals. TITLE V WASTE MANAGEMENT Section 42. Purpose. The purposes of this Title are: a) to set guidelines for waste management with a view to ensuring its effectiveness; (b) to encourage, promote and stimulate technological, educational economic and social efforts to prevent environmental damage and unnecessary loss of valuable resources of the nation through recovery, recycling and re-use of wastes and waste products; and (c) to provide measures to guide and encourage appropriate government agencies in establishing sound, efficient, comprehensive and effective waste management. Chapter I Enforcement and Guidelines Section 43. Waste Management Programs. Preparation and implementation of waste management program shall be required of all provinces, cities and municipalities. The Department of Local Government and Community Development shall promulgate guidelines for the formulation and establishment of waste management programs. Every waste management program shall include the following: a) an orderly system of operation consistent with the needs of the area concerned; (b) a provision that the operation will not create pollution of any kind or will constitute public nuisance; (c) a system for a safe and sanitary disposal of waste; (d) a provision that existing plans affecting the development, use and protection of air, water or natural resources shall be considered; (e) schedules and methods of implementing the development, construction and operation of the plan together with the estimated costs; and (f) a provision for the periodic revision of the program to ensure its effective implementation. Section 44. Responsibility of Local Governments.
Each province, city or municipality shall provide measures to facilitate the collection, transportation, processing and disposal of waste within its jurisdiction in coordination with other government agencies concerned. For this purpose, the national government shall provide the necessary subsidy, to local governments upon request made through the National Environmental Protection Council and subject to such terms and conditions as the latter may provide. Chapter II Methods of Solid Waste Disposal Section 45. Solid Waste Disposal. Solid Waste disposal shall be by sanitary landfill, incineration, composing, and other methods as may be approved by competent government authority. Section 46. Sanitary Landfills.
Local governments, including private individuals, corporations or organizations may operate one or more sanitary landfills. Any entity proposing to operate a sanitary landfill shall submit to the appropriate government agency an operational work plan showing, among other things, a map of the proposed work location, disposal areas for rubbish, garbage, refuse and other waste matter; and the equipment or machinery needed to accomplish its operations. In no case shall landfill or work locations under this Section be located along any shore or coastline, or along the banks of rivers and streams. lakes throughout their entire length, in violation of any existing rules and regulations. Section 47. Incineration and Composting Plants.
The installation and establishment of incineration or composting plants, or the alteration/modification of any part thereof shall be regulated by the local governments concerned in coordination with the National Pollution Control Commission. Section 48. Disposal Sites. The location of solid waste disposal sites shall conform with existing zoning; land use standards, and pollution control regulations. Section 49. Dumping into the Sea and Other Navigable Waters. The dumping or disposal of solid wastes into the sea and any body of water in the Philippines, including shorelines and river banks, where these wastes are likely to be washed into the water is prohibited.
However, dumping of solid wastes or other materials into the sea or any navigable waters shall be permitted in case of immediate or imminent danger to life and property, subject to the rules and regulations of the Philippine Coast Guard and the National Pollution Control Commission. Government agencies and private entities which are undertaking solid waste management programs shall make consultations with the government agencies concerned with respect to the effects of such dumping to the marine environment and navigation. Chapter III Methods of Liquid Waste Disposal Section 50. Liquid Waste Disposal. Wastewater from manufacturing plants, industries, community, or domestic sources shall be treated either physically, biologically or chemically prior to disposal in accordance with the rules and regulations promulgated by proper government authority. Section 51. Applicability of Sec. 8.
The provisions of Sec. 8 hereof shall likewise apply to the dumping or disposal of liquid waste into the sea and other bodies of water. TITLE VI MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS Section 52. Population-Environment Balance. In the assessment of development projects, the National Environmental Protection Council, hereinafter referred to in this Title as the “Council” shall take into consideration their effect on population with a view to achieving a rational and orderly balance between man and his environment. Section 53. Environmental Education. The Department of Education and Culture shall integrate subjects on environmental education in its school curricula at all levels.
It shall also endeavor to conduct special community education emphasizing the relationship of man and nature as well as environmental sanitation and practices. The Council and other government agencies implementing environmental protection laws in coordination with public information agencies of the government shall undertake public information activities for the purpose of stimulating awareness and encouraging involvement in environmental protection. Section 54. Environmental Research. The Council shall undertake and/or promote continuing studies and research programs on environmental management and shall, from time to time, determine priority areas of environmental research. Section 55. Monitoring and Dissemination of Environmental Information of Foreign Origin.
The Council shall keep itself informed of current environmental developments by obtaining information and literature from foreign sources through the Department of Foreign Affairs, government agencies and other entities, both domestic and foreign. Such information and literature shall be given the widest dissemination possible. Section 56. Incentives. To operate the installation and the utilization of pollution control facilities, the following incentives are hereby granted: (a) exemption to the extent of fifty (50) per cent of tariff duties and compensating tax for the importation of pollution control equipment, devices, spare parts and accessories for a period of five (5) years from the effectivity of this Decree subject to the conditions that will be imposed by the Council. b) a tax credit equivalent to fifty (50) per cent of the value of the compensating tax and tariff duties that would have been paid on the pollution control equipment, devices, spare parts and accessories had these items been imported shall, within a period of seven (7) years from the effectivity of this Decree be given to the person or firm who or which purchases them from a domestic manufacturer, and another tax credit equivalent to twenty-five (25) per cent thereof shall be given to the said manufacturer subject to such conditions as may be imposed by the Council; and (c) deductions equivalent to fifty (50) per cent of the expenses actually incurred on research projects undertaken to develop technologies for the manufacture of pollution control equipment which have been proven effective and commercially reproducible, from the taxable income of the person or firm actually undertaking such projects subject to the conditions that may be imposed by the Council. The pollution control equipment, devices, spare parts and accessories acquired under this Section shall not be sold, transferred or disposed of within five (5) years from the date of acquisition without the prior approval of the Council otherwise the importer or purchaser shall pay twice the amount of the tax exemption or tax credit granted. Section 57. Financial Assistance/Grant.
Financial assistance/grant for the study, design and construction of environmental protection facilities especially for waste disposal in favor of cities, municipalities, small and medium-scale industries may be granted on a case to case basis subject to such conditions as may be imposed by the Council. Section 58. Participation of Local Government Units and Private Individuals. It shall be the responsibility of local government units as well as private individuals to actively participate in the environmental management and protection programs of the government. Section 59. Preservation of Historic and Cultural Resources and Heritage. It shall be the duty of every person to help preserve the historic and cultural resources of the country such as sites, structures, artifacts, documents, objects, memorials and priceless trees. Section 60. Government Offices Performing Environmental Protection Functions.
Government agencies vested by law to exercise environmental management powers, shall continue to function as such within their respective jurisdictions. The Council may, however, in the exercise of its powers and functions under Presidential Decree No. 1121, inquire into any action or issue of environmental significance. Section 61. Public Hearings. The Council may, whenever it deems necessary, conduct public hearings on issues of environmental significance. Section 62. Definition of Terms. As used in this Code: (a) “Ambient Air Quality” means the average atmospheric purity as distinguished from discharge measurements taken at the source of pollution. It is the general amount of pollution present in a broad area. b) “Emission” means the act of passing into the atmosphere an air contaminant, pollutant, gas stream and unwanted sound from a known source. (c) “Water Quality” means the characteristics of water which define its use in terms of physical, chemical and biological contents; hence the quality of water for domestic use is different from industrial use. (d) “Water Quality Surveillance” means a close and continuous supervision of the water quality to detect development movements or changes in the characteristics of the water. (e) “Water Quality Standard” means a plan that is established by governmental authority as a program for water pollution prevention and abatement. Such a standard may include water use classification and the criteria to support the uses of the water. f) “Effluent Standards” means restrictions established to limit levels of concentration of physical, chemical and biological constituents which are discharged from point sources. (g) “Clean-up Operations” refers to activities conducted in removing the pollutants discharged or spilled in water to restore it to pre-spill condition. (h) “Accidental Spills” refers to spills of oil or other hazardous substances in water that result from accidents involving the carriers of such substance such as collisions and grounding. (i) “Areas of Critical Environmental Concern” are areas where uncontrolled development could result in irreparable damage to important historic, cultural, or aesthetic values or natural systems or processes of national significance. j) “Hazardous Substances” means elements or compounds which when discharged in any quantity present imminent or substantial danger to public health and welfare. (k) “Areas Impacted by Public Facilities” refers to areas where the introduction of public facilities may tend to induce development and urbanization of more than local significance or impact. (l) “Environmental Impact” is the alteration, to any degree, of environmental conditions or the creation of a new set of environmental conditions, adverse or beneficial, to be induced or caused by a proposed project. (m) “Government Agencies” refers to national, local and regional agencies and instrumentalities including government-owned and controlled corporations. TITLE VII FINAL PROVISIONS Section 63. Separability of Provisions.
If any provision of this Code, or the application of such provisions to any person or circumstance, is declared unconstitutional, the remainder of the Code or the application of such provision to other persons or circumstances shall not be affected by such declaration. Section 64. Effectivity. This Code shall take effect upon its approval. Done in the City of Manila, this 6th day of June in the year of Our Lord, nineteen hundred and seventy-seven. *** PRESIDENTIAL DECREE No. 1152 PHILIPPINE ENVIRONMENTAL CODE WHEREAS, the broad spectrum of environment has become a matter of vital concern to the government; WHEREAS, the national leadership has taken a step towards this direction by creating the National Environmental Protection Council under Presidential Decree No. 121; WHEREAS, it is necessary that the creation of the Council be implemented with the launching of a comprehensive program of environmental protection and management; WHEREAS, such a program can assume tangible and meaningful significance only by establishing specific environment management policies and prescribing environment quality standards in a Philippine Environment Code: NOW, THEREFORE, I, FERDINAND E. MARCOS, President of the Republic of the Philippines, by virtue of the powers vested in me by the Constitution, do hereby order and decree: Section 1. Short Title. This Decree shall be known and cited as the “Philippine Environment Code. ” TITLE I AIR QUALITY MANAGEMENT Section 2. Purposes. The purposes of this Title are: a) to achieve and maintain such levels of air quality as to protect public health; and (b) to prevent to the greatest extent practicable, injury and/or damage to plant and animal life and property, and promote the social and economic development of the country. Chapter I Standards Section 3. Ambient Air Quality Standards. There shall be established ambient air quality standards which shall prescribe the maximum concentration of air pollutants permissible in the atmosphere consistent with public health, safety and general welfare. In the establishment of ambient air quality standards, factors such as local atmospheric conditions, location and land use, and available technology, shall be considered among others. Section 4. National Emission Standards.
There shall be established national emission standards for new and existing stationary and mobile sources of pollution which shall consider among others such factors as type of industry, practicable control technology available, location and land use, and the nature of pollutants emitted. Section 5. Community Noise Standards. Appropriate standards for community noise levels shall be established considering, among others, location, zoning and land use classification. Section 6. Standards for Noise-Producing Equipment. There shall be established a standard for noise producing equipment such as construction equipment, transportation equipment, stationary engines, and electrical or electronic equipment and such similar equipment or contrivances.
The standards shall set a limit on the acceptable level of noise emitted from a given equipment for the protection of public health and welfare, considering among others, the magnitude and condition of use, the degree of noise reduction achievable through the application of best available technology and the cost of compliance. The Installation of any noise-producing equipment shall conform with the requirements of Presidential Decree No. 1096 and other applicable laws as well as their implementing rules and regulations. Section 7. Aircraft Emission and Sonic Booms. Appropriate government agencies shall encourage research studies on the harmful effects of aircraft emissions in the environment in order to establish permissible emission standards. Research and studies shall also be undertaken to mitigate and/or minimize the effects of sonic booms in the environment. Chapter II Regulation and Enforcement Section 8. Air Quality and Noise Standards.
The National Pollution Control Commission in coordination with appropriate government agencies shall be responsible for the enforcement of ambient air quality emission and noise standards, including the monitoring and surveillance of air pollutants, licensing and permitting of air pollution control facilities, and the promulgation of appropriate rules and regulations. Existing air quality emission and noise standards may be revised and/or modified consistent with new development and technology. Section 9. Aircraft Noise. Community noise standards around airports shall be implemented by the Civil Aeronautics Administration in coordination with the National Pollution Control Commission. Section 10. Vehicular Emissions. The Land Transportation Commission, in coordination with the National Pollution Control Commission, shall implement emission standards for motor vehicles and may deputize other appropriate law enforcement agencies for the purpose. Section 11. Radioactive Emissions.
The release and emission of radioactivity into the environment incident to the establishment or possession of nuclear energy facilities and radioactive materials, handling, transport, production, storage, use and disposal of radioactive materials shall be regulated by the Philippine Atomic Energy Commission in coordination with other appropriate government agencies. Chapter III Monitoring Section 12. Air Quality Monitoring. The National Pollution Control Commission, in coordination with appropriate government agencies, shall establish to the greatest extent practicable an air quality monitoring network. Such air quality monitoring network shall put to maximum use the capabilities of these agencies.
The National Environmental Protection Council shall be furnished with the results of air quality monitoring activities. Section 13. Weather Modification. The Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration shall monitor regularly meteorological fac

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