Economische En Sociale Geschiedenis

Samenvatting Economische en Sociale Geschiedenis 2013 INHOUD: 1. Samenvatting Boek “Before the Industrial Revolution” M. Cipolla 2. Kleine samenvatting Boek “Arm en Rijk” D. Landes 3. Samenvatting algemene hoorcolleges: Migratie & Interbellum 1. Samenvatting Boek “Before the Industrial Revolution” M. Cipolla Part I CHAPTER 1: Demand (pages: 3 t/m 52) Spain census of population, 1789, lot of population estimations are rough and not precise. Small societies. Not very large growth of population in 18th century. Low fertility or high mortality is the cause of slow growth. So population of preindustrial Europe remained relatively small. more in chapter 5). Normal mortality occurs in normal years. Catastrophic mortality occurs in calamitous years, it far exceeded current fertility. Always drastic fluctuations of population. Needs: depend on population size, geographical factors, and structure of population by age/gender/occupation & sociocultural factors. Cultural factors forbid/duty to do certain things. As long as a person is free to demand what he wants, what counts on the market are not ‘needs’, but ‘wants’. Wants are both expressed by individuals and society but only have limited resources, we have to make choices.
Wants become effective demand when they are backed by purchasing power. (expressed by purchasing power). Purchasing power is based on income/distribution of income (public/private) & level and structure of prices. Income and distribution: Incomes can be divided in wages/profits/interests and rents. Preindustrial Europe was a striking contrast between the abject misery of the mass and the affluence and magnificence of a limited number of very rich people. Lyon & Florence 10% of the population controlled more than 50 % of the wealth assessed. Other measurement of wealth: bags of grain. (reserves).
Gregory King made accurate calculations of national income, putting to good use all the material he had available in addition to his personal observations. Poverty and unequal distribution of wealth and income. People with no income at all beggars. In France at the end of the 17th century, beggars counted for 10 % of the population. Most people lived at subsistence level, no savings or social security to help them in distress, only hope was charity. In different European cities, there were different percentages of “beggars”. Many fluctuations in unemployment figures. In years of famine (hongersnood/schaarste) high numbers of poverty.

Income can be earned or transferred. Transfers: voluntary transfers (charity/gifts) & compulsory transfers (taxation). Many people left things behind for charity when they died. Also disasters and feasts served to accentuate charity. When people died from a disaster, their belongings went to the church/hospitals. Besides charity, gambling and dowries were forms of voluntary transfers, they could affect productive activity. Compulsory transfers; taxation on the one hand, plunder and theft on the other hand. Theft on low-class people because of: famine, inequality of income. Noble people also: earlier centuries of middle ages.
Ransom (losgeld), large transfers of wealth. In early periods, great importance of alternatives to trade. After 10th century, trade expanded and concentrated in cities. (Permanent fairs). Types of demand: Demand for production goods, demand for services, demand for capital goods. 1. Demand for consumption goods 2. Demand for services 3. Demand for capital goods Demand can also be divided into: 1. Private internal demand 2. Public internal demand 3. Foreign demand Private demand: the lower the income, the higher the percentage spend on food (logic). The poorer the country, the higher the percentage spend on food of total expenditures.
The lower the income, the more spend on poorer foods, such as bread (stijfselachtig voedsel). Rich people, less amount of total income on food. Symbolic value of food in preindustrial Europe. Rich ate a lot. Somethimes too much. Purchase of clothing was luxury. Epidemics, clothing of deads were passed over, which spread the epidemics. Plagues. People lived in small houses with many families. (rents were very high in large towns, compared to the wages). Milanese Public Health Board issued rules for living, but poverty stood in the way of wisdom. Rich had domestic staff. Low wages favoured the demand of domestic services.
Wages only did not represent the total expenditures on them. costs of food/living/heating and other items provided tot servants by their employers. Income not spend on consumer goods and services is naturally saved. Nobody saves to the same extent: 1. Level income 2. Psychological/sociocultural factors 3. Income distribution. Obvious when income is high that there is more possibility of saving. Rich people could invest an amount saved of their income. (Cornelig de Jonge van Ellemeet for example). National saving in England at the end of the 17th century amounted to less than 5 percent of national income.
Very unfair divided income distribution. Even though England was one of the richest preindustrial societies, NO high concentration of income. Preindustrial societies were in a position to save only if they succeeded in imposing miserably low standards of living. Flow of monetary income becomes circular savingwill be converted into investment. Hoarding: preindustrial Europe, large amounts of monetary savings were hoardeddid not reach financial market (under matrasses/socks for example). A lot of hoards were accidentally discovered. Hoarding because of fear (robbery and plundering). Beginning 11th centrurydis-hoardingdivine activities.
Building cathedrals, helping the poor, religious building. 11th & 12th century financed through dis-hoarding. Investment euphoria. Public demand: Arose from the 11th century, only 5-8% of national income. Before the 18th century public and private demand were different to distinguish. Distinction: presence of CHURCH as patrimonial & economic entity. Level and structure of public demand: a. “income” public power (derive from: taxation, public loans (forced), state property exploitation, gain of the mint) b. “wants” of those in power (war/defense/court/civil administration/festivities) c. he price structure and of the community they control Public powers can increase taxes; income is function of their “wants”. Public Debt= invention of Italy city-states. Moneys lent to the state by private citizens, mostly forced loans. Citizen would receive interest on the sum lent. Throughout the Middle Ages and Renaissance the public powers managed to broaden the tax base & to raise the rate of taxation. Parties Casuelles were in France the fiscal bureaus. In England and France the revenues of the Crown rose. But also rising prices, growing population, increased wealth.
Fiscal privileges for the nobles (adel) hit the poor hardercomplaints! From 12th century sometimes administration was done by noblemen (no salary). A major expenditure of public money were embassies (representation). But military expenditure surpassed by far all the other expenditures. Also medical and educational services rose. Ethical & social valuepaying with public money so that ANY person (rich or poor) could get education or treatments. For example in Milan in 1288 had 3 of such surgeons. 1324 18 of such surgeons in Venice. Education: in the Middle Ages only private education (few).
When communes arosepaying teachers with public money. Public schools arose rapidly. After 11the century. Education is investment in human capital. Guns & warships unattractive form of capital, capital goods middle 15th century public expenditure. Demand of the church: Church is important economic entity in preindustrial Europe. Donations from counts/barons, unable to manage land themselves so they donate to church. Very large magnitude of such estates. Before the 11th century. Following centuries nobles/wealthy donate buildings and lands to the church. 16th and 17th centurygrowing size of land holdings.
Every now and then , however, church fell upon hard times in which bad administration affected property Reformation was worst period before 18th century. dissolution (ontbinding) of monasteries. A lot of monasteries (kloosters). By 1550 nothing was left of English monasteries, all possessions dispersed. Lots of income for Crown (benefit from sales). ReformationLombardy(-ije) before countries affected by Reformation. Reformation cuts into further growing of lands & possessions of church. The distribution of wealth within the church reflected the unequal distribution of wealth in society as whole.
Foreign demand: Network of exchanges with other economic systems (goods/services/wealth/capital & metals). Import/Export = foreign trade. Exports are the response to foreign demand. Demand largely on food and textiles. End 16th century, clothes 80% English export. High transportation costsquality products, well do could afford these products. Industrial revolution made it possible to buy foreign made products easier. Import/Export could be measured by total GDP. (GNP). England best country with statistics on foreign trade. Henry VII (15th centrury) 300. 000. 17th century 9,5 million, increase in volume foreign trade.
In Portugal, ancient manufacturers destroyed. Trade consequences depend on qualitative structures of certain trade. CHAPTER 2: The factors of production (pages; 53 t/m 96) Input is made up of factors called “factors of production”. Labor (ARBEID): divide people in consumers/producers & ages of people. Preindustrial 1/3 under 15. 60% 15-60 years old before 19th century. Difference between preindustrial & industrial societies = composition of dependent population (consumers but NOT producers). Nowadays productivity is very high, ratio of dependency 50-65%. Preindustrial: work till dead, start younger than 15.
Child labor fields; summer. Bad treatment + female labor (agricultural/spinning/weaving). Wet nurse: sells food (mother’s milk) & cares for infant (service). Of economical and social importance. Sectors of activity: Primary, Secondary, Tertiary. Primary: Agricultural; low productivity, high % of total people worked in Primary sector not all sunk, kill and eat it, very vulnerable… Working Capital: consists of stocks and inventories. (raw materials, semi-finished goods, finished goods). Stocks of foods, spared from consumption capital. Creating stocks costs money. Nowadays: ratio working capital to fixed capital is reduced. 2012, doomsday preppers however still exist;-)). Working capital is continually turned over. Continually coming back for reinvestment disinvestment is easier. STOCKS can be sold. QUESTIONL: Why low levels of production of preindustrial societies and a vicious circle of poverty? investment was so limited because opportunities for productive investment were extremely limited. Not so much because of poor potential of saving. Natural resources (NATUUR): non reproducible capital. Not infinite!!!! Land is a natural resource. Mineral deposits of: silver, gold, tin, copper, iron, etc.
Medieval people were conscious about pollution more than during Industrial Rev. (Pitcoal). Forestsrules of cutting and planting trees. Later the rules became less important to the Europeans (during M. A & Renaissance). A lot of brick and marble in Italian culture because they exhausted their forests very early. Energy of water and wind for land-based activities (used on the spot), so manufacturers were located were mills could be build. Organization: labor, capital and natural resources must be combined in organizational forms which vary according to technology, the size of markets and the types of production.
Different forms of organization can coexist. Preindustrial manufacturing was concentrated on the workshop. Craftsman. Dependent on who gave order (merchants with warehouses). Mining and shipbuilding sectors. Modern capitalism manufacturing or trading sectorsled to modern capitalism. CHAPTER 3: Productivity and Production (pages; 97 t/m 114) Production is the outcome of all individual and social choices acting on both the demand and the supply side. Labor, capital and natural resources are INPUTS of production. Output emerges from their combination of use. Determinants: better education, economies of scale, technological development, etc.
Entrepreneurial activity is a necessary ingredient, but not a sufficient one+ human vitality of whole society. Medieval and Renaissance productivity levels: technological progress. Agriculture (Slicher van Bath): between 1200 and 1700, grains yielded per seed planted rose. Fluctuation because natural resources, poor control over forces of nature. Animals poor fedless milk from cows, little meat. Weavers : low labor productivity meant that production processes were labor-intensive. Building industry: little improvement on productivity. Other sectors noticeable improvements during MA & Renaissance. Gutenberg 1440: printing press (drukpers).
The main reason for productivity gain was technological progress. Still low compared to industrial society. Not only quantity is important n measuring productivity, quality also important, but less records available. Positive production: greatest part of production in preindustrial Europe: food, textiles, buildings and domestic services. The: foreign trade. Many people produced locally. Negative production: the deliberate destruction of men and whealth & pollution and the destruction of the environment. Destruction of men and wealth for political or religious reasons. Assasins, Arsonist, Bomb-throwers. War!! -> Labor (the military) and capital (weaponry) with the avowed intention of destroying. Industrial army greater destructive power. Preindustrial: scarcity of capital. Plague destroyed men, not capital. Livestock killed, acres burned, vineyards destroyed. a. destruction of natural resources b. pollution of the environment with the waste products of consumption c. pollution of the environment with undesirable by-products of productive activities d. damage to the health of those engaged in production In preindustrial societies less capacity for negative production. But even preindustrial societies managed to mismanage. 6th century increased use of coal in England. Domesticindustrial. (Fumifugium 1661. J. Evelyn). Miners, Gilders, Potters, Sulfur workers, Tanners, Glass-workersconcern for working conditions of labor. Part II CHAPTER 4: The Urban Revolution: The Communes (pages; 117 t/m 122) After fall down Roman empire, cities fell with it. Economic decline. North improved position, contact with south. Muslim invasion. Depressed and depressing world, rise of cities between the 11th and 13th centuries represented a new development, which changed the course of history. Differences between parts of countries and countries. Massive migratory movement.
Towns grew because populations grew, high fertility & people from rural areas to cities. Migration: push & pull factors. Town was a place for innovation, economic and social advancement. Nobles took residence in the city (Italy). Cities became seats and centres of the power of the triumphant bourgeoisie. Citie WALLS. (protection). Towns were very different in medieval and renaissance period. Emegence of towns was a social and cultural revolution. Unique personal status for people living in cities. Burgers… Italian cities attack and conquer the surrounding territory ( conflict with central power of Empire).
Germans not!! France got a monarchy very soon. England, cities developed slower, very few revolutionary characteristics. Horizontal arrangements, co-operation among equals: university, fraternity, gildthe commune were the institutions created by the new outlook and which reflected new ideas. QUESTION: How did cities emerged?? from a portus (Belgian historian) beside a feudal castle of rising again from the foundations of a Roman town, was core of new society. Between 11th & 13th century. CHAPTER 5: Population: Trends & Plagues (pages; 123 t/m 136)
Beginning new millennium, thin scattered population 35 million total. 1000-1400 population grew. Black dead came back in 1348, wiped out people. Also: wars, famines & epidemics struck again. En of 15the century 80 million. 16th century substantial growth. Beginning 17th100 million. Population of preindustrial Europe remained young and small. High fertility and high mortality. Marriage: manay people lived in celibacy (celibatair). Avoided for economic reasons. Age of marriage differs from time, class and country. Average age marriage around 25. Many people which DID married made it up for the unmarried.
Number of children born still very high. High fertility because of youthful age structure and high mortality. QUESTION: Which types of mortality can be distinguished? Normal and catastrophic mortality. Normal mortality happens to occur in normal years. free from calamities (infants and adolescents) but WITH poverty.. While catastrophic mortality also took adults. Preindustrial societies were very vulnerable to calamities of all sorts. (WARS, FAMINES, PLAGUES (EPIDEMICS)). People literally died of hunger. Famines contributed directly to increase in mortality but also indirect by encouraging epidemics.
Epidemics contributed most to the frequency and the intensity of catastrophic mortality. Balck Dead 1348. But also evey year an epidemic. Tyfus, bacteries, plaag, etc. Low growth rates. Begin 14th century several areas overpopulated, to prevailing levels of production and technology. Demographic growth big, public health development small! Effects of epidemics on given population are determined not only by the # people killed, but also by distribution of age (fertility). Normal mortality usually lower than fertility, but after a catastrophe start all over again. Citites survived because of flow from country to city.
Epidemics after 18th century subsided. Pandemics. Mortality no longer assumed catastrophic proportions. Disappearance of plague after 17th century. Reasons: better building, burying corpses, disappearance of black rat? –> onverdedigbaar! BUT: ecological revolutiondemographic revolution, due to technological and economic achievements of western Europe. CHAPTER 6: Technology (pages; 137 t/m 159) Technological developments 1000-1700: Romans ->Watermills, slave labor (cultural reasons for development stagnations). BUT: we always think of machinery as we think of technology.
Romans were very good in : organization of military, administration, architecture, road construction). Main technological developments 6th-11th century: watermills, plough, crop rotation, horseshoe, methods for harnessing draft animals. NOT inventions but increase in USE. All agricultural and strengthen each other. Many horses used, better capital. Alos IRON for equipment. Also developments in human capital and water power, watermill used for all kinds of productions. Also Windmillsirrigation end of 12th century. In 1745 a FANTAIL , sails into the wind automatically, 1st example of automatic control in machinery. 300 the compass, more mathematical navigation. Ship as capital greater value. Inventions: spinning wheel and spectacles (BRIL). Beginning 14th century: clocks, firearms and canal locks. Ship building: ship skeleton first during later middle ages. 15th centuryfull-rigged ships, all kinds of winds sailable. Time of voyages diminished + costs reduced. systematic knowledge of winds. Naval guns were build out of bronze. 16the centurycasting iron guns. This before mentioned provided a basis for expansion overseas. Technological innovation: printing (Gutenberg) bible, before printing was very expensive.
Press opened up vast new horizons and opportunities in the fields of knowledge and education. Spread rapidly. Spinning wheel China 11the century, Europe 12th century. Innovation: small steps through numerous minor experiments. After the industrial revolution modern science. Windmill originally Persianvertical axis, European horizontal axis worked much better. Paper originally Chinesespread to Muslim empire. European paper produced with machines driven on watermills. After 12th century passion for mechanization of all productive processes. LABOR SAVING DEVICES.
Mechanical clock for examplefirst measuring time in different ways, from 13the century need for solution measuring time because of mechanical outlook from people. Spread of clock: churches, public buildings, etc. Consequences of mechanization: in a number of sectors gains were achieved + mechanical outlook reinforced more and more. Logical consequence that follows is a mental outlook, which takes centuries to develop. Also feared as a source of possible dangerous disturbances. Scarcity of labor caused by epidemics one factor; but were many more and complex factors. Also mental attitudes and aspirations.
WHY Europe so favourable to change? We do NOT know. The spread of technology: 12th – 15th century Italians leas technology invention. 16th-17th century Dutch and English. Through ages; main channel for diffusion of innovation has been migration of people. = migration of human capital. Sometimes things kept a secret when economic interest were at stake. Spread: migration of craftsman to other parts of country or other countries skilled labor migration. Push and pull factors, bad for economy of home country when people moved to other country. Sometimes punishments because of skilled movement.
DRANG NACH OSTEN; Dutch people went to east because of fertile ground. Bologna attracted artisans in exchange for privileges. Depends on circumstances if invention takes place in host country of skilled laborers. Qualities that make people tolerant also make them receptive to new ideas. CHAPTER 7: Enterprise, Credit & Money (pages; 160 t/m 182) Enterprise and credit: Business techniques; organization of fairs, accounting techniques, insurance, etc. Many techniques developed between 11th and 16th century in Italy. From 16th centuryDutch and English; great trading companies.
Lack of productive investment because of hoarding etc. But cities grew and credit developed very rapidly. Sale credit, therefore consumption became higher. Commenda: partnership contractsone or more give a SUM, used by other in business…instead of hoarding for example. Some as stock exchange, small and large savings. From 15th compagnia (coastal cities). Inland grew companies better…less risks (pirates, bad weather, etc). Involvement of shareholders unrelated to original family marked end of first phase in company history. End 13th century; entries publicly authenticated. Italians: double entry bookkeeping. 6th/17th oversea trade, expansion demand capital. Companies createdEast India Company, stocks and shares. Commenda: not possible without MUTUAL TRUST & honesty in business. Development civil/criminal legislation. Monetary trends: Start 11th century economy + monetary system developed. Middle Ages + Renaissance only coins. Chinese 13th century paper money already. Gold measured in carats, pure measure of gold and silver. Is intrinsic value. During Middle Ages and Renaissance monetary systems progressed. Before 1000- denariuscould work in primitive economies. Silver, 1 coin only.
Until the 16th century until the Germans invented a way to mechanize the minting process involving a watermill. Many goods instead of cash (horses, weapons, etc. ) Growing demand for money after 11th century. 2 standards for coins (fineness, weight) !! Extreme: in Germany every prince or individual town strok OWN coins. M=P+(C+S) P:marketprice, M: amount someone brought in, C:charge minter, S:left of worth metal Devaluationsincrease amount in circulation= bring more metal in increase P English relatively strong coin. France unstable (1290) devaluation and revaluation, economy suffered in France.
Also due to 100 year war. Countries coinage shouldn’t belong to a king. Italy different gentler downwards devaluations than in France. Grossi, Piccioli, of denarius new phase with “multiples” of 1 coint. Bimetallic: system with silver AND gold started in Italy. Supply of metals due to discovery of African coast (Portugese; 1457, cruzado). Afterwards silver founded in parts of Germany, rush towards heavy & chunky coins. Silver “Guldiner” in Germany. Spanish came back from America with gold/silver = Real of Ocho (Eight). 16th /17th century = intrinsic fineness. 2th century and onward banking activity deposits = intangible = ink. Money. Bankers appeared money changes: intermediaries for public & mints. Depositors/bankers/payees. Bankers always hold certain amount of cash delivered to them in case people want to withdraw it. Just a fraction of total amount in KAS. –>reserve. This is the origin of bank money. In England goldsmiths who collected deposits and created money. Bank money positive development. QUESTION: Were there any economical drawbacks? Many panic, wars, high risks of losing money. Hurry to banks to collect deposits.
Not all money was there because bankers only hold a “fraction” of total deposits. The rest was in investments and loans. Many banks went BANKRUPT. CHAPTER 8: Production, Income & Consumption (pages; 183 t/m 208) The great expansion: 1000-1300: Phase of expansion: new technologies/growth of towns/new sociocultural environment/increased division of labor/monetarization of economy/stimuli to saving, all these factors encouraged economic expansion. 1000- when European development took off, cultivation of land. Fertile land, NEW land. The Christian Reconquista made important progress in Spain. Territory got re-conquered.
Drang nach Osten(12-13th century). As the Germans advanced, new cities were founded. By 1300 the movement had slowed down. The German eastward expansion was demographic, economic, political and religious in character. Very good land in the east (better capital and techniques brought with them). Expansion to Central Europe, Baltic countries. Everybody in Europe benefitted from it. Untill Ind. Rev. economy remained agricultural. Rebuilding new city walls. As were leading sectors there were leading areas. Northern Italy, bridge between Europe and north Africa. Coastal republics and important crossroads.
Seafaring activity was greatly extended. Economic trends: 1300-1500: CHAPTER 9: The Emergence of the Modern Age (pages; 209 t/m 233) 2. Samenvatting Boek “Arm & Rijk ” D. Landes * 1. Ongelijke bedeeldheid natuur * 2. Omgaan met natuurlijke gesteldheid: Europa en China * 3. Europa’s eigen weg * 4. De uitvinding van het uitvinden * 5. De ontsluiting van de wereld * 6. Naar de Oost * 7. Van ontdekkingen tot wereldmacht * 8. Bitterzoete eilanden * 9. Heerschappij in de Oost * 10. Gewinzucht * 11. Golconda * 12. Winnaars en verliezers: de balans van de wereldmacht = t/m blz 202 1. Ongelijke bedeeldheid natuur:
Invloed van geografische factoren, met name klimaat. Hierarchy betreft gunstig klimaat. Inkomen per hoofd bevolking in rijke landen in de gematigde streken. Onderontwikkelde in tropen of subtropen. Geografische gesteldheid is 1 van de factoren. Eenvoudige rechtstreekse verbanden: klimaat, in warme landen is werken zwaarder, hitte, lichaam. (neem als voorbeeld siesta). Slavernij in warme streken, anderen doen het werk. AC verscheen pas laat. In Amerika al eerder. Klimaatregeling kostbare techniek, weinig armen kunnen zich dat veroorloven. Arbeidsproductiviteit in warme landen lag LAGER.
Complexe en indirecte verbanden: Hitte zorgt ook voor verbreiding van voor de mens schadelijke levensvormen. Slakkenziekte (parasieten) , malaria etc. Geneeskunde grote vooruitgang geboekt bij bestrijden dergelijke ziekten. Kolonisten brachten artsen mee, hierdoor inheemse langer leven. Zuigelingsterfte erg minder. Contrast echter nog steeds schrijnend. Tropenziekten + geneeskunde (inheems). Waterregenwoud, veel regen korte tijd, verpest alle vruchtbarheid etc. Uiterste: droge streken. Opslag zou oplossing zijn, maar enorm snelle verdamping. Rampenvijandig klimaatook in rijkere landen, Amerika orkanen bijvoorbeeld.
Afrika: sterftecijfer blijft hoog ondanks vooruitgant, ook mede door bevolkingsexplosie. Opvallend verschil in werkkracht en efficiency tussen gematigd en tropisch klimaat. voedingspatroon NOEM EEN DIRECTE EN INDIRECT VERBAND WAAROM WARME LANDEN HET ZWAARDER HADDEN? [zwaarder werken in hitte, AC duur, slavernij] & [hitte zorgt voor verspreiding schadelijke levensvormen] 2. Omgaan met de natuurlijke gesteldheid: Europa en China: Europa: betrouwbare en gelijkmatige waterval + gematigde temperaturen. Voedselvoorziening in handen van mensen met vruchtbare grond. Mediteraanse zee, minder regen, slechtere grond betere bomen en veeteelt.
Hierdoor achterstand Zuid-Europa, ook door culturele factoren. Waarom kwam Europa zo traag op gang na Egypte en Mesopotamiegeografische liggingLigging in wouden/bossen, epidemieen/pandemieen/hongersnood/plagen/oorlogen. Later, technologie om land te bewerken, oorlog te voeren, meer mestmere voedsel, geen wormziekten die China wel teisterden. Europeanen waren gezonder. Echter zeer vruchtbaar slib in oosten. Overstromingen en droogte perioden in China/India. Grote bevolkingsdichtheid, er werd snel getrouwd. Europa pas laat trouwen. China: tussen 1000-1300 verdubbeling bevolking, daarna afname door epidemieen.
Steeds meer landbouw nodig om mensen te voeden. Agrarische revoluties. Trokken van noord naar zuid. Uitbreiding graanschuur en enorme concentratie op rijst. Arbeids en waterintensief energiemodelhydraulische samenleving eigen arbeiders, sterke overheid, niet westers. Werd ook tegengehangen. Tijd tot tijd, zonder autoriteit. WAT IS EEN HYDRAULISCHE SAMENLEVING? GEEF VOORBEELD…Een hydraulische samenleving (ook bekend onder de termen watermonopolie-rijk of hydraulische these) is een sociale of overheidsstructuur, die haar macht ontleent aan de exclusieve controle over de de toegang tot water.
Ten grondslag hiervan ligt meestal de noodzaak tot gecoordineerde irrigatie of gecontroleerde overstromingen, waardoor centrale planning en een hiertoe gespecialiseerd overheidsapparaat een belangrijke rol gaan spelen. ] 3. Europa’s eigen weg: In de 10e eeuw had Europa net een lijdensweg ondergaan van plunderingen, roof, oorlogen. Noormannen naar zuid-europa en oosterse contreienRussen. Geduchte en wrede plunderaars. Hongaren vanuit het Oosten, bleven niet lang. Hierna, door afwezigheid van agressie kon Europa groeien, mede door ondernemingszin (niet vanzelfsprekend).
Tussen oude mediterrane wereld and moderne Europa zit overgangstijdkwam nieuwe samenleving op gang. Orientaals despotisme (alleenheerschappij). Hierdoor niet mogelijk eigen gang te gaan, belemmerde dus de ondernemingszin. Middeleeuwen tijd van overgang, Eigendom was recht!!! Europa zag niet toe, reguleerde niet en onderdrukte niet, China wel wat betreft eigendom. Ook despotische regeringen in Europa, maar ingeperkt door de wet. Chinamuren om mensen bij zich te houden, niet overlopen naar rivalen…Als er in Europa rivaliteit was tussen landen, goed jegens burgersanders konden ze overlopen.
Er ontstonden gemeenten als marktplaatsen. Knoopplaats tot handel met platteland (hogere status). Heersers gaven macht aan stedelingen en buitenluiomdat dat meer oogst opleverde en tevens macht heerser uitbreidde. Middeleeuwen Europa: economische revolutievoedsel, landbouwmethoden, INNOVATIE ipv UITVINDINGEN. WAAROM SPREEKT MEN LIEVER OVER INNOVATIE DAN OVER UITVINDINGEN? [nieuwe methoden stamde al uit eerdere tijden, neem windmill (vertical/horizontal axis voorbeeld OF Ploeg op wielen door Germanen meegebracht]

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