Egyptians

Medicine
The three best-known works dealing with medical issues are the Ebers Papyrus (c. 1550 BCE), the Edwin Smith Papyrus (c. 1600 BCE), and the London Medical Papyrus (c. 1629 BCE) all of which, to one degree or another, prescribe the use of spells in treating diseases while at the same time exhibiting a significant degree of medical knowledge.
The Edwin Smith Papyrus is the oldest known work on surgical techniques and is thought to have been written for triage surgeons in field hospitals. This work shows detailed knowledge of anatomy and physiology.

The Egyptians were also quite fluent in the surgical field. And preserved dead bodies using chemicals in a process called embalming. It would only be fair if Egyptian given the title “Father of Medical Science.
In the early 20th century a man named Sir Grafton Elliot Smith discoverd fractures from about 5,000 years that had healed properly as a result of the Egyptian’s medical care. The skeletons of Ancient Egyptians show they long ago learned how to splint bones so they would heal nicely after being broken. Even modern medical journals have acknowledged this major contribution of the Egyptians. They would create splints out of bark cushioning them with linen.
The Egyptians discovered antibiotics as well, priest doctors were using moldy bread as antibiotic, thousands of years before Andrew Fleming, according to Mark Nelson an editor of Tetracyclines in Biology, Chemistry, and Medicine.
Ancient Egyptians also discovered how to treat worms in a most natural way. Using pomegranate which because of it’s high tannin content has the ability to paralyze worms, this method was still very common in medical practice afterwards for quite some time.
The Chester Beatty Medical Papyrus, prescribes cannabis for cancer patients
The Egyptians called the science of medicine the “necessary art”
The Berlin Medical Papyrus (also known as the Brugsch Papyrus, dated to the New Kingdom, c. 1570 – c. 1069 BCE) deals with contraception, fertility, and includes the earliest known pregnancy tests. The Ebers Papyrus (c. 1550 BCE) treats cancer (for which, it says, there is no treatment), heart disease, diabetes, birth control, and depression. The Edwin Smith Papyrus (c. 1600 BCE) is the oldest work on surgical techniques.
The Demotic Magical Papyrus of London and Leiden (c. 3rd century CE) is devoted entirely to magical spells and divination. The Hearst Medical Papyrus (dated to the New Kingdom) treats urinary tract infections and digestive problems. The Kahun Gynaecological Papyrus (c. 1800 BCE) deals with conception and pregnancy issues as well as contraception. The London Medical Papyrus (c. 1782-1570 BCE) offers prescriptions for issues related to the eyes, skin, burns, and pregnancy.
Doctors in Ancient Egypt were required to be literate but also practice cleanliness and they did so vigorously. Doctors were referred to as wabau, ritually pure and expected to bate as frequently and carefully as a high priest.
Ancient Egyptians valued cleanliness. The chances of survival following medical procedures was probably higher than that of any European hospital in the Christian era until the mid-20th century when cleanliness and the sterilizatio of instruments became more prevalent.
There is evidence of tooth extraction and false teeth with opium used as an anaesthetic.
A lot of the instruments we use in the surgical field today were invented by the Egyptians. For example they had a flint and a metal scalpel, dental pliers, a bone saw, probes, the cathether, clamps for stopping blood flow, specula, forceps, lancets for opening veins, sponges, scissors, phials, bandages of linen, and scales to weigh an accurate amount of raw materials to mix medicines
Surgeries were usually successful shown by the mummies and other miscellaneous remains found of those who lived after amputations and even brain surgery for years
Prosthetic limbs, made usually of wood, have also been found.
The Ancient Egyptians were quite educated in the means of anatomy mostly because of their embalming process in which they practiced the removal of human organs. It is said because they were so exceptional in their understanding of the human body, diseases. And maladies even the Greek were envious of their expertise
Astrology
The calendar that we still use today is primarily built off of the Egyptians calendar, which was based on the cycle of the star Sirius, using the principles of astronomy they developed an accurate calendar divided into 12 months, 365 days, and 24- hour units. Doesn’t that sound familiar. They divided the year into three seasons each consisting of 120 days. Each season was divided into four months of 30 days including a month with 5 epagomenal days treated as outside of the year proper.
The Ancient Egyptians were able to predict solar and lunar eclipses, flood in the Nile river, if it was time to sow seeds and many other things. They also knew the movement of planets and stars.
Mathematics
The original pyramids are more than enough evidence to prove the very advanced mathematical skill of the Egyptians. The construction of these phenomenon required ample knowledge of mathematics, specifically geometry.
Mathematics was used in record keeping, such as business transactions,to calculate tax rates, in developing the schematics for machines, like the water pump, and in drawing up designs and siting locations for building projects. But not everything mathematics was used for was complicated it was also used for simple things such as writing prescriptions or patients or mixing the components for a medicine.
The ramp and the lever are two of the most famous inventions developed for construction by the egyptians and were mandatory in the contructions of architecture like the Great Pyramid of Giza. The principles that guided them are still greatly utilized in modern construction today.
Inventions

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They developed time keeping devices such as sundials, shadow clocks, obelisks, and even evidence of water clocks
They used their knowledge in the science of aerodynamics to contruct ships that were able to catch the wind and push vessels through water.
The also invented the concept of using rope trusses to strenghten the beams of their ships and were the first to use stem- mounted rudders on ships
The Egyptians invented toothpaste and toothbrushes in order to care for their teeth
The Egyptians invented mints to cover bad breath
The Egyptians invented chewing gum for bad breath using honey, cinnamon, myrrh, frankincinse, and pigno They had invented plough and hoe The Egyptians were the father of ‘Historiography’. The historians accompanied the Pharaoes to the battle field and recorded their achievements. The ‘Rosetta stone’ is its classic example.

Agriculture

They had invented plough and hoe.

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