Employment Conditions on Employee Productivity

INTRODUCTION
The main purpose of devising and improving employee productivity is to increase efficiency, and these results partly form better industrial relations. If people are in suitable jobs, they are more likely to be contended with their work, and this will react favorably on the output directly and will promote co-operative relations. Conducive employment conditions environment stimulates creativity of workers. Non-improvement in work environment and bad working conditions contribute to low productivity of employees because employees lack the motivation to give their individual best towards production.
A favourable working condition is one of the most important factors that boost employee productivity, and the level of interaction amongst the employee, employer and the superiors gingers the employees to be either effective or otherwise. According to Likert (1959), the contribution of working conditions to an individual’s job satisfaction varies widely, but generally, it is considered relatively small. Other things employees complain about include health and safety measures against accident and fire, sanitation and suggestion system. In Nigeria private companies, the plight of workers reflect Fredrick Taylor’s thesis on factory management which states that in the past, the man had been first, in the future the system comes first.

Fredrick Taylor says that managers are technically oriented. Greater emphasis is placed on output, higher production and cost savings, no matter the human cost that may be involved in the process of achieving their objectives. For this to be achieved, there must be constant improvement in working conditions which covers claims for higher wages, shorter hours of work, holiday arrangement and pay incentives and bonus e.t.c. Adequate grievance procedure and provision for arbitration over disputes are further safeguarded.
Under the 1979 constitution, it is provided that the objectives of the Nigerian states are geared towards ensuring that: (a) Health, safety and welfare of all persons in employment are safeguarded and not endangered or abused; b) Conditions of work are just and humane while there are facilities for leisure and for social, religious and cultural life. c) Opportunities are provided for citizen to secure adequate mean of livelihood and suitable employment and d) There are adequate medical and health facilities for all persons.
According to Mayedeo and Markak (1962), productivity may be defined as the ratio between the production of a given commodity measured by volume and one more of the corresponding input factor measured by volume. A look at the above definition shows that productivity is made up of labour, raw materials or combination of many factors. It should be however said that productivity of labour has been the main concern. The ratio of output of the factor is the measure of productivity in relation to the particular factor of production.
Production = Output of Production
Input of Labour
P = O/M
Where `p’ = Productivity
O = Output
M = Man hours put in
This research aims at investigating, examining and the analyzing of employment conditions and its effect on employees in an industrial organization on their rate of productivity. Productivity is a vital and major concept to every industrial organization. As a matter of fact, no organization would be able to achieve its goals if the matter of productivity is neglected. It has also been argued that labour aspect is the most vital without which the organization would be far from reaching the desired goals. Even in the committee of nations, productivity is a major tool for development.
Productivity took a new dimension with the industrial revolution where productivity transcended mere subsistence. High productivity in industries is highly important as a result of the fact that it is a necessary condition for organizational sustenance and continuity in addition to improved standard of living. It is worthy of mention that industrialization is an advancement of work. Work itself is seen as an effort or activity carried out for personal or organizational sustenance. Much expectation is attached with the concept of work, in addition to the provision of economic security. Work makes life meaningful and gives the feeling of self-actualization and acceptance to the worker in an industrial environment. However, the importance of work elucidated above working in the Nigerian industrial environment has not been that easy in recent time .
So many thing come into play which affect workers in the process of their daily activities as far as working condition are concern. These challenges often force industrial workers to feel concerned about some important working conditions such as the pay, the physical environment, safety, participation in decision making, career development /progression, heath etc.
STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
In a situation whereby the working environment is not conducive enough for the employees, there may be a setback in the production level. A number of problems may arise while trying to create a good working condition. This may include good salary package, incentives and bonuses, good insurance policy, allowance, cordial relationship of the superior and subordinate and good compensation.
Organization must make sure that the working conditions are favourable so as to motivate the employee without any grudges towards achieving the organizational goals and objectives. Some of the problems that will make an employee less productive will include: Low job satisfaction, inadequate communication, poor employee/management relationship, neglect of job analysis, autocratic management style, weak union structure, and arbitrary change of work rule.
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF STUDY
The purpose of study will include:
To find out the extent to which employment conditions and employees productivity can be improved and the impact in on Cadbury Nigeria Plc. To find out how a well carried out job analysis improves productivity in Cadbury Nigeria Plc. To examine the type of leadership style and the relationship between the management and employees To determine the extent of labour turnover in relation to working conditions in Cadbury Nigeria Plc.
RESEARCH QUESTIONS
The research questions of the study will include:
i. What leadership style is being adopted by the management of Cadbury Nigeria Plc.? ii. Is there any relationship between social interaction and employee productivity? iii. How can working conditions influence employee productivity in Cadbury Nigeria Plc? iv. Is there a direct relationship between working conditions and employee productivity? v. Does wage rate determine employee’s productivity?
RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
H₀: There is no direct relationship between working conditions and employee productivity. H₁: There is a direct relationship between working conditions and employee productivity.
H₀: There is no positive relationship between social interaction and employee’s productivity. H₁: There is a positive relationship between social interaction and employee’s productivity.
H₀: Employees are not satisfied with the working conditions and are likely to express the need to leave the organization. H₁: Employees are satisfied with the working conditions and are likely to express the need to leave the organization.
SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
The study shows that productivity is a very essential factor in any organization. There is a need for the parties to strive hard to ensure that well carried out job increase productivity and it should be adhered to especially at the company level and there is the pursuit of rendering excellent services to customers. This research seeks to find out why expected returns are not accruing to some organizations while others are reaping the fruit of their labour. The research is also of particular interest in finding out whether employees with best performance are expressed within the range of their working conditions.
SCOPE OF STUDY
This study is limited in scope to finding impact of working conditions on employee productivity. This study additionally identifies productivity related problems confronting organization with the intention of providing relevant solutions’ to them. This study is focused on the Food, Beverage and Tobacco industry. This is one of growing industry in Nigeria economy and Cadbury Nigeria Plc. is chosen. It is chosen with the belief that it will provide us an overview into the performance assessment exercise in the Food, Beverage and Tobacco industry.
LITERATURE REVIEW
Literature review is very important and crucial to any research work. This is because the review of literature provides us with guidance and exposes us to other works that have been done in any particular field. It facilitates an insight into the understanding of the subject matter of research. Here, various opinions shall be discussed so as to make it easy for other researchers who wish to embark on the same subject matter. Relevant and current literatures will be reviewed.
Brenner (2004) argued for modeling of work environment to improve employees’ productivity calls for management responsibilities of holding everything together, improving motivation and creating commitment in the work environment. He postulated the PRIDE model, which managers can use in order to be successful in modeling the work environment. Providing a work environment that simultaneously achieves company goals and employees’ goal involves motivating such work environment with quality of work life.
This involves giving employees opportunity for their personal growth, achievement, responsibility, recognition and reward so as to get high quality productivity from employees (Cecunc, 2004). According to Yesufu (1984), the nature of the physical condition under which employees work is important to output. Offices and factories that are too hot and ill-ventilated are debilitating to effort. There should be enough supply of good protective clothing, drinking water, rest rooms, toilets, first aids facilities etc. Both management and employees should be safety conscious at all times and minimum of requirement of the factories act must be respected.
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
This shall highlight the method that will be employed in gathering relevant information and analyzing such information. The areas that would be covered includes, the research population, sample size, research design, research instrument, re-statement of hypothesis, method of data collection and method of data analysis.
The population of this research is based on the food, beverage and tobacco industry, while the sample is Cadbury Nigeria Plc. The research instrument to be adopted will involve the use of questionnaires and interviews. A questionnaire is a research instrument consisting of a series of questions and other prompts for the purpose of gathering information from respondents.
SAMPLE AND SAMPLING TECHNIQUES
The whole population cannot be studied, thus a sample was drawn to represent the population. The finding from the study of sample shall be generalized for the entire population; all employees of the Cadbury Nigeria Plc. They will be given equal and independent chance of being selected and included in the sample,
DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION
Data analysis and interpretation is the life-wire of any research study, an attempt will be made to classify responses according to sex, age, educational level, marital status, length of service and current salary grade. Simple Random Sampling shall be employed in analyzing the collected data whereby each individual is chosen randomly and entirely by chance, such that each individual has the same probability of being chosen at any stage during the sampling process.
DEFINITION OF TERMS
i. Job satisfaction
Is in regard to one’s feelings or state-of-mind regarding the nature of their work. Job satisfaction can be influenced by a variety of factors, eg, the quality of one’s relationship with their supervisor, the quality of the physical environment in which they work, degree of fulfillment in their work, etc.
ii. Arbitration
A non-court procedure for resolving disputes using one or more neutral third parties — called the arbitrator or arbitration panel. Arbitration uses rules of evidence and procedure that are less formal than those followed in trial courts, which usually leads to a faster, less-expensive resolution
iii. Leadership style
Leadership style is the manner and approach of providing direction,
implementing plans, and motivating people.
iv. Productivity
Productivity is the relative efficiency of economic activity—that is, the amount of products or services produced compared to the amount of goods and labour used to produce it. It can also be said to be the amount of goods and services that a worker produces in a given amount of time. v. Working conditions
Working conditions is the safety and healthfulness of the workplace, including the physical work environment and the procedures followed in performing the work.

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