school and classroom management Researchers have pointed out the importance of assisting students in positive behaviors. In planning classroom management, teachers should consider using an assertive communication style and behavior. In addition, they should always know what they want their students to do and involve them in the respective learning activities, under the general conditions of clearly and explicitly stated school wide and classroom rules. An effective conduct management plan should also refer to teacher control and administration of consequences.
The following components of such a plan are focused on in this summary: acknowledging responsible behaviors, correcting irresponsible and inappropriate behavior, ignoring, proximity control, gentle verbal reprimands, delaying, preferential seating, time owed, time-out, notification of parents/guardians, written behavioral contract, setting limits outside the classroom, and reinforcement systems. All of these components are presented so they can be identified in examples of best teaching practices. Covenant management stresses the classroom group as a social system. Covenant management focuses on the classroom group as a social system that has its own features that teachers have to take into account when managing interpersonal relationships in the classroom” (Froyen & Iverson, 1999). Teachers and students’ role and expectations shape the classroom into an environment conducive to learning. In other words, the culture of any given school is unique to that school. However, it is directly influenced by the culture of the larger community whose educational goals are to be met.
A strong connection between school and community must be constantly revised and modified according to the requirements of societal dynamism. As schools become very diverse, teachers and students should become aware of how to use diversity to strengthen the classroom social group. Reference Brophy, Jere E. 1983. “Classroom Organization and Management. ” The Elementary School Journal 83 (4):265 – 285. Brophy, Jere E. 1998. Motivating Students to Learn. Boston: McGraw Hill. Brophy, Jere E. , and Evertson, Carolyn M. 1976. Learning from Teaching: A Developmental Perspective. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
Bossert, Steven T. 1979. Tasks and Social Relationships in Classrooms. Cambridge, Eng. : Cambridge University Press. Doyle, Walter. 1986. “Classroom Organization and Management. ” In Handbook of Research on Teaching, 3rd edition, ed. Merlin Wittrock. New York: Macmillan. Doyle, Walter. 1990. “Classroom Management Techniques. ” In Student Discipline Strategies, Ed. Oliver C. Moles. Albany: State University of New York Press. Doyle, Walter, and Carter, Kathy. 1984. “Academic Tasks in Classrooms. ” Curriculum Inquiry 14 (2):129 – 149. Duke, Daniel, ed. 1979. Classroom Management.
Yearbook of the National Society for the Study of Education. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Emmer, Edmund T. ; Evertson, Carolyn M. ; and Anderson, Linda M. 1980. “Effective Classroom Management at the Beginning of the School Year. ” The Elementary School Journal 80 (5):219 – 231. Evertson, Carolyn M. 1985. “Training Teachers in Classroom Management: An Experiment in Secondary Classrooms. ” Journal of Educational Research 79:51 – 58. Evertson, Carolyn M. 1989. “Improving Elementary Classroom Management: A School-Based Training Program for Beginning the Year. ” Journal of Educational Research 83:82 – 90.
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