Euro Ch. 22 Study Guide Italian Unification * Victor Emmanuel II (VERDI): First King of United Italy, King of Italia * Cavour: Prime Minister of Piedmont-Sardinia from 1852 until his death, had a realpolitiker’s vision, promoted economic development, to unify Italy he had to confront Austria so he got help from Napoleon who feared growth of Piedmont and gave them Lombardy but not Venetia to Piedmont and left the rest of Italy disunited, helped achieve a strong economy, modern army, liberal political climate provoked Austria to invade Northern Italy Garribaldi: a committed republican, dedicated guerilla fighter, set sail from Genoa with a thousand red shirted volunteers to liberate Sicily, where peasants were rebelling against their landlords and the corrupt gov. in anticipation of Risorgimento. Victor’s victorious forces and Garilbaldi’s met in Naples. Garibaldi threw his support to the king. In 1861 the kingdom of Italy had Victor as their head.
Originally wanted to liberate sicily * Piedmont Sardinia: * Role of Napoleon: * France promises to help out Italy with the war against Austria, but switches sids in the middle and makes a treaty with Austria * gave Lombardy to Piedmont, but not Venetia, took Rome for France * left Italy disunited * Role of Francis Joseph: Austrian Emperor who signed peace treaty with Napolean 2nd French Empire Napoleon III: called himself “A man of Destiny”, modernizer, promoted strong economy -conservative control with democratic reforms -wanted to economically modernize and reform France -disrupted the concert of Europe by establishing French domination * Italian Unification: napoleon pitted France against Austria * Crimean War: started with conflict between Russian and Ottoman empires. Russia had been expanding into Asia and the Middle East.
Tsar Nicholas I wanted to absorb much of the Ottoman Empire so Napoleon encouraged him to be more aggressive in his expansion which provoked a war between Ottomans and Russians. Brits started to support Ottomans and so did french. Nicholas died and his son Alexander II took over and asked for peace. * Maximillian & Mexico: was the brother of Habsburg emperor Francis Joseph, installed as ruler of Mexico by napoleon but Mexico revolted and executed him * Collapse after Franco Prussian War: end of 2nd empire Policies- free-trade agreement with Britain, backed the establishment of innovative investment banks, (late 1850s) allowed working class organizations to form, introduced democratic features into his governing methods Crimean War * Russia vs Turkey, Britain, France * Good weapons, bad tactics * Florence Nightingale: British women who read about how Britain wasn’t taking care of their soldiers and so she decides to help * Efforts to reform Russia * End to serfdom * Mir communities prevent reform German Unification Wilhelm I: king of Prussia who appointed Bismarck as prime minister in hopes that he would quash the growing power of the liberals in the Prussian parliament * Otto Van Bismarck, the Iron Chancellor * Vs. Liberalism * Vs. Denmark 1864 * Vs. Austria 1866, tricked Austria into declaring war on Prussia which Austria lost * Schleswig & Holstein * Austria’s Dual Monarchy: Hungarians could rule over themselves too * Vs. France 1870 * Kulturekampf: culture war against religion by Birmarck. German gov. xpelled the Jesuits from Germany in 1872, increased state power over the clergy in Prussia in 1873, introduced obligatory civil marriage in 1875 * Working Class Suffrage: upper class votes counted more than those from lower * Iron & Blood Progress * Haussmanization: process of urban change, rebuilding of Paris, clean (water, neighborhood), wider pathways * Pasteur: came up with germ theory, suggested that certain organisms like bacteria and parasites might be responsible for human and animal diseases * Lister: Education Reform: middle classes argued that civil service jobs should be awarded according to talent and skill rather than automatically go to those of aristocratic birth or political connections. In Britain a civil service law passed in 1870 requiring competitive examinations to assure competency in government posts * Darwin: nature is a constant struggle for survival (natural selection), human development came about through evolution * Religious conflicts Herbert Spencer & social Darwinism Imperialism * Indian Mutiny * Government of India Act: established direct Britain control over india * Suez Canal: connects Mediterranean sea to Red sea, shortcut to asia * Panama Canal Scandal: * Taiping rebellion * Meiji restoration: Japan’s attempts to modernize itself Intellectual Movements * Bakunin & Anarchism: anarchism maintained that the existence of the state was the root of social injustice.
According to Bakunin, the slightest infringement on freedom, especially by the central state and its law, was unacceptable * Realism in the arts & Literature: rejection of emotionalism & romanticism * Positivism: theory claiming that careful study of facts would generate accurate and useful laws of society * The Rise of Marxism: opposed both mutualism and anarchism * Das Kapital: adopted the liberal idea that human existence was defined by the necessity to work to fulfill basic needs such as food, clothing, and shelter. * The Commune of Paris: