Fashion Trends of Youth in Pakistan Consumer Behavior Chapter 1 Introduction * Fashion It’s not just an outfit that is the offer of fashion. Rather it resides in every corner of the present landscape. Our mobile phones, our cars, our kitchens, our choice of media, the places where meet our friends- all add to the meaning of fashion. Its not enough to wear the clothes, you have to don the lifestyle too. Fashion is a conceptual term though it covers almost all aspects of our daily life.
Dress is very important facet of our personality and fashion in our dress and clothes have taken its step towards international market. The retail and wholesale sector in Pakistan was worth about $40 billion in fiscal year 2012, and has been growing at 5. 3% in real (inflation-adjusted) terms for the past five years, much faster than overall economic growth during that period. Parallel to this trend in consumerism, Digital Marketing in Pakistan has also been on the rise which has resulted in the Fashion Industry (specifically formal and informal lawn brands), fast accepting this unique phenomenon.
Also, with the Ramazan on the go; Eid approaching in the near future and summers near their destined end, many new clothing brands have gone active and are advertising their Eid collection and Summer Sales on Facebook vigorously. So much so, that as per my calculations, one in every ten recommendations/sponsored stories or ads I see, are related to a clothing brand. Whether it be established brands like Kayseria, Khaadi and Gul Ahmed, or newly launched premium brands like Sana Safinaz or Asim Jofa, or relatively smaller designer names like Rang Ja, The Working Woman, Mariam Aziz and Echo ll can be found actively on Facebook. Fashion industry of Pakistan has made quite a lot of progress in just a few years. Ten to fifteen years from now, this industry was still unknown to actually exist to the masses. Late with the formation of fashion councils and education centers under the enthusiastic few who wanted to make a difference and promulgate this very institution of fashion, * Quick glance at fashion back in TIME The Swinging 60’s The focus of the time was on fittings. Bell bottoms, hair pieces, narrow fitted shirts, narrow dupattas, heavy eye makeup for girls and side burns for men was order of the time.
People in those times took influence from the actors whom they idealized. The Political 70’s In 70’s the political times changed. People turned towards patriotism. Cotton came in vogue and people were seen in loose kurtas called Awami Suits and Saris. The Materialistic 80’s The 80’s emerged from the drabness of the 70’s and ushered in disco, glitz and glamour. People were indulged in their material instincts. In Pakistan, loose was “in” and tight was “out”. Glitter and glitz was trendy and simplicity took a back seat. Back To The East With 90’s It was a time for the rival of our culture.
Traditional costumes made a comeback. A lot of embroidery, gharara, Sheirwani and Paishwaz were seen. Everyone wanted to look sleek and thin. The New Millennium “The Y2K“ The year 2000 came with a bang moving people towards hi-tech and fast-paced living. The clothes too have become more streamlined and structured. The defined boundaries of eastern and western fashion have collapsed people wear no fuss Chinese trousers, cargo pants, iron easy cloth and manageable preferably short hair. Fusion is the call of this time * Interview with designers Maria B:
Fashion is an extension of self ,an ___expression of individuality, of art and modernism- It has no borders or divides- Its passion and It is the constant evolution of society. Fashion is a form of ___expression on an individual as well as a social level—The general shift in Pakistan thank God! is towards intelligent broad-minded ideas and its now starting to reflect in the way that people are dressing up HSY: Fashion for me is your sense of living. It’s not only about dress, but it’s about you and what you live with. It can be your values and ethics, it can be everything around you. Nida ali:
I think the average customer is price conscious, style conscious, trend conscious and the element of brand consciousness comes right at the end. Chapter 2 The Consumer Segmentation & Targeting In a broader view and unbiased analysis, the Pakistani fashion industry has certainly played a very constructive and optimistic role in building the fashion sense and fashion trends amongst all the age groups The target we have selected to conduct a survey on the changing trends in fashion scenario is a combination of both the genders from the age range of 15 to 35 years of age regardless of any income bracket from the educated community.
This range can be justified with the projection of the following statistics. The income ranges depict that our target market is almost equally from all income groups and people do follow fashion regardless of income brackets in one way or the other. Our target market of research comprises of a major chunk from the age range of 21 to 25 years being 76%. While having smaller portions of age 15-20 and 26-30 with sizes of 14% and 10% respectively. The youth mainly the fashion seekers and followers are in the continuation of their education period.
As, this is the age when fashion becomes a craze for them. 63% females are fashion conscious willing to participate in a fashion survey while 37% are from the male category of consumers. * Media of Approach The fashion consumer of today is constantly bombarded with different types of stimuli in different forms of advertising. Today’s fashion consumer is more sophisticated and demanding than the consumer of the past. Looking at history, fashion runways and fashion shows have been the biggest inspirations for the fashion industry.
We have assessed from these facts that regardless of the rapid growth in new mediums of information search like online sources of 13%, The traditional media is still more trustworthy for the consumer to attain the information they require for their shopping like Fashion shows & Exhibitions having 20%, Fashion Magazines 24%, TV Commercials 40% and Billboards 10% chunk respectively. Fashion magazines are an extension of the marketing departments of large fashion companies. For a designer, the fashion show is a way to broadcast ideas. It is a medium. The growing Online trend The growing trend of online queries and locating stores, if not e-purchases, have also seen a tremendous rise which is understandable considering females make up 31% of Pakistan’s Facebook population of almost 7 Million and the age group from 18-34 years makes 76% of the said population. These stats quite clearly infer that Digital has most certainly become an effective medium of transforming information and communicating with this industry’s target group. In addition to the remarkable customer service most of the fashion brands in
Pakistan are providing online, it is worthy to note that digital media has leveled the playing field for all brands, irrespective of their sizes. It has given all sorts of brands the leverage to promote themselves and explore social media marketing for their advantage, especially if traditional mediums like billboards, print ads, TVCs etc are out of budget. This graph represents the presence of facebook fans of various brands locally in Pakistan and worldwide as well. The appreciation of facebook and other social media networks as a tool of marketing is growing very rapidly in a very short time among our young generation.
Considering these statistics, we can appraise the standing of these various brand among the consumers and their level of appreciation in the market. Keeping these stats and trends in mind, one can evidently conclude that digital and eventually mobile marketing has an immense potential for the Fashion Industry. If the growth trends continue to move in the same direction and at a similar pace, there should certainly be no stopping social media marketing from making brands re-allocate their budgets from traditional to online mediums. Chapter 3 Market Research * Problem Statement
How does the behavior of a fashion consumer changes with upcoming fashion trends? * Research Methods * Questionnaire We have gathered information from our target market with 30 questionnaires duly filled by the prospects from our target market at various places with different set of ideals for a broader perspective and analyzed the results. The questionnaire is attached. * Focus Group We conducted a focus group of 8 attendees from our target market and concluded healthy discussion on the concerned issue. The moderator guide of the focus group is attached at the end. Online Focus Group on FaceBook We have conducted a focus group online through the platform of facebook as we do realize that the major chunk of our target study is active on social media networks. * Interviews Our search also consists of the interviews from the fashion industry to gather an over view about fashion from the producers of this wave. * Mall Intercepts We have visited quite a few stores, brand outlets and malls surveying for practical encounters and recorded the views of some consumers in video and others in writing.
Our surveys destinations included Suzy, Shirt & Tie Shop, Hyperstar at Fortress Stadium while some interviews were conducted on the streets there. * Boutique Survey We also encountered the people running those boutiques and assessed their perceptions briefly. Chapter 4 Consumer Behavior Consumer behavior is deeply influenced by the demographics and household structures, needs, emotions, values and personality, group influences, information processing and decision making along with purchase behavior. Consumers are becoming more demanding, which is forcing fashion retailers to provide the right product at the right time.
Information and trends are moving around the globe at high speed, resulting in more options and thus the consumers shop more often. The consumers need for uniqueness forces fashion retailers to constantly renew their styles. * Culture In case of cultural preferences, we often see people with different style statements living in the same area or same people having same appearances living at areas with vast distances. This is a fact which projects the importance of presence of culture in our lives which we tend to follow in almost all walks of our life.
The most followed culture is equally distributed among regional and family preferences with the health of 37% each. Most of the population tend to follow what is being pursued in their region for ages, for instance, in Pakistan, with many differences in lifestyle, we all still follow some basic similar values. On the other hand, if we take Family culture into account, it refers to the values we share with our family, the way we present ourselves based on our family background, living standards and lifestyle. 19% incorporate multiple cultures in their attire and appearance while 4% opts for Western style of dressing.
Social Class Fashion reflects our society and our culture. likewise it reflects how people define themselves People tend to follow what is in and what is the wave of the present current in fashion. 44% of our participants from consumer market are inclined towards the ongoing trends, while another major chunk is attracted towards the designer cuts or brand for their choice of attire. Former categories comprise of the majority while small parts of the market follow Celebrity with 6%, 6% towards price, 6% of advertisements while 10% people go for friend’s advise and attire. * Consumer Behavior Model Involvement of senses (Touch, sight) When we judge the quality of an apparel, the foremost concern for the consumer is the quality of the product which is preferred by 50% even for the youngsters who do not really care for the long life of the products. Some follow View of the fabric and its name share the same standing of 17% while a greater appreciation of Brand name of 24%. * Personal Selection Factors * Hedonic consumption Value of a garment is being defined as an interactive partiality experience, and distinguishes a person’s experience of interacting with an object or event.
Enjoyable experiences in a store reflect different types of hedonic values. Values are defined as consumer behavior that regards the emotional and fantasy aspect of consumers’ interactions with products. Comparing to its utilitarian counterpart, the hedonic shopping value is more personal and associated with playfulness and fun. For instance, it is fairly common that people shop for both utilitarian and hedonic grounds, as well as a positive mood can come from consumers following either type of shopping. A reason for consumers to go shopping can also be the possibility to socialize with their friends.
An individual’s set of values is very important regarding consumption activities. Many purchases are made because consumers think that purchasing products will result in reaching value-related goals. Shopping for clothes is considered recreational, satisfying and rewarding. Impulse buying is important to fulfill hedonic desires. There is an evident link between impulse buying behavior and hedonic shopping. Clothes purchased to satisfy hedonic needs seem to be chosen without planning and characterize an impulse buying event as can be witnessed like 50% of the buyers.
Consumers are driven to hedonic shopping experiences by new fashion styles and brand image salience, which in turn motivates fashion-oriented impulse buying behavior. On the other hand, people who are rational in their decisions and finalize their action after going through all pros and cons. * Consumer Involvement * Motivation Clothing is referred to as specialty good since consumers often make the effort of seeking out the garment that they require. Motivational need can be both utilitarian and hedonic. The end state that the consumer has the intention to reach is the goal.
How urgent the consumer wants to reduce the need depends on whether the need is hedonic or utilitarian, this is called the consumer’s drive. One indication of a need is a person’s want, which is created by a combination of cultural and personal factors. These statistics project the motivational elements which encourage a consumer to make a purchase. The most prominent motivator is an occasion or event which motivates 43% of the targeted sample. While, 20% are for Friends and 20% for family suggestions. Celebrity styles and icons attract and motivate 17% of our audience.
Fashion-oriented impulse buying happens when consumers find a new fashion product and buy it due to the motivation to buy new products; products they did not plan on buying. Here we can see the level of motivation and the elements which influences a person to make a purchase. 40% are the impulse buyers who immediately opt for purchase with the product and the internal drive. The other major category observed in our survey was that of people who are motivated with advice of friends and family. This 46% require someone to support their choice.
Two small classes of 7% being those who spent more tie and opt to search for further alternatives or more information about the item before making a purchase. * Motivational Conflict Approach-Approach According to our survey results, consumers often face Approch-Approch conflict when they have to choose between two dresses appealing them at the same level. Approach-Avoidance Another conflict of Approach-Avoidance also exists when a design attracts to a consumer at a designer shop but meanwhile price element restricts a particular customer. Level of Involvement Inertia: Inertia basically describes the low level of involvement towards the chosen product that either the consumer is willing to pay an effort before purchase or not? In fashion industry, according to our survey some respondent’s level of involvement was low because they just go to any shop; strongly use their heuristics and mental short cuts to buy apparel. Cult: The second concept which also prevails in the fashion industry is that, a part of consumer’s level of involvement is also very high in terms of shopping clothes.
Because they put a lot of exertion in choosing and purchasing outfit having a feel of passion and consider their apparel as a symbol of their individual personality. * Need Theory Implementation * Self Concept * Self Concept When clothes leave the fabric they are merely garments. It is not until the marketers get hold of them that they become fashion. Clothing and accessories express how we feel, how we see ourselves and how we wish to be conceived by others. When we buy clothes we buy an identity. Fashion constitutes an important societal part of the individual’s well-being.
Through the right choice of clothing it is possible for an individual to improve his or her self-esteem and acceptance by other people. Identities and social roles appear through people’s choice of clothing and accessories. Clothes function as symbols that indicate status, gender, social group allegiance and personality. Fashion is a way of expressing oneself and it says a lot about the person. * Fantasy Clothes shopping is considered to be more attractive. It is a break from the normal routine and it is an opportunity for fantasy and self-expression.
What we wear is a complete expression of who we are. The appearance is the first indicator of personality to be judged. We portray ourselves what we fantasize about our own personality following our ideals through our accessories, our choice of movies, the interior of our house and most prominently our attire. We judged from our sample that majority of our sample portrays themselves to be decent yet fashionable being 54% of the whole sample depicting a major part of our culture. Secondly, 30% fashion consumers tend to portray themselves to be lively and energetic.
Some 14% try to explicitly present themselves as an open personality and extrovert. A few demonstrate themselves to be shy and submissive. It’s not enough to be fashionable-one wishes to appear intelligent as well. * Gender Orientation “Modern marketing has relied on gender to help understand and explain consumers and their behavior. ” Women see clothes as a mean for self-identity, whereas men focus more on functional benefits. Women see shopping as something recreational, it is important to emphasize the hedonic and experiential attributes of shopping.
Women spend twice as long time in a shop as men and the typical window-shopper is a woman. Men and women think differently, and these gender-specific brain differences show a significant effect on how the individual absorb, process and retain information. The following Pivot Table exhibits the relation of gender with the style they follow for their purchase with a graphical representation which is extracted from our Online Facebook survey. | Values| | Row Labels| Sum of Male| Sum of Female| Casual| 4| 8| Celebrity| 0| 1| Formal| 4| 3| Present day| 3| 12| Grand Total| 11| 24| | | Another Pivot Table is extracted from our survey which depicts the relation of gender with the inclination of consumer towards Price or Style conscious personality. | Values| | Row Labels| Sum of Male| Sum of Female| Price Conscious| 7| 9| Style Conscious| 4| 15| Grand Total| 11| 24| Men don’t buy fashion – they buy clothes Men are comparatively less sophisticated consumers of fashion than women. * Extended Self “Fashion is an extension of self and expression of individuality” All the possessions of a person add an extra glamour to the personality.
These can be the clothes, accessories, cell phones or your jewelery which adds an extra charm to what you idealize and portray about your personality. This extract shows the inclination of people towards various categories to embrace an additional appeal to their personality. This is clearly visible that clothes and shoes are the possessions that exhibits glamour and is the centre of attention for most of the youngsters being 37% each. While 14% go for jewelery, 6% for glasses, 6% for wrist watches and 7% opt for mobile phones as their charming accessory. Personality & Chosen Product Match
Your perception towards fashion is what you personality is regarding this particular field. This graphical representation clearly demonstrates the personality of our target youngsters in terms of fashion trends and their own self. Sober looks and Maturity is the dominant trait occupying 34%. * Product symbolization The Fashion Pyramid * Freudian Theory (diagram interpretation) [Id = Brain attack , Superego = Heart attack, Ego = A balance with heart on one and brain on the other side) (landscape) * Trait theory Various distinct traits are associated with different fields of life projected by the consumer of that particular segment.
Likewise many traits are associated with fashion industry and consumers monitoring and following the changing trends. For instance, it is suggested that people who are more communally oriented (a female trait) will enjoy shopping more because of their psychological identification with the communal nature of the task. * Product congruence & Consumer Lifestyle Loyal customers spend more each shopping trip, and are more time-conscious. Our clothes are often an expression of our spirit and character, so there is nothing wrong with finding a look that suits you and relying on it.
Here the question is do consumers calibrate their wardrobe to better illustrate their present mood & personality to therefore show overall congruence and harmony? Well, a direct relation exists between the clothing you choose to wear and your overall personality in terms of congruency. According to our one of the consumers view, “I have noticed that when I am feeling very energetic, and very outgoing, I will pick out clothing from my closet that resembles my mood: loud, and vibrant. Yellow t-shirts, red watch, etc. Meanwhile, other times, when I’m n a mellower and laid back mood, I will wear more toned down clothing, sometimes just a black tee-shirt and jeans. ” Fashion is based on creating a need, where in reality, there is none. Fashion is a factory that manufactures desire. Pre occupation with fashion reveals a level of insecurity. It’s like they are worried about being judged. People obsessed with fashion feel that if they’ve changed their look, they’ve also evolved emotionally. They live in a state of being extremely conscious about their appearance. * Decision Making * Heuristics * Shopping Atmosphere * Post Purchase Satisfaction Product Disposal The product disposal is an important issue to be discussed as we keep on adding accessories to our wardrobe and stuff it with articles. It is essential to know what consumers opt for after It is deducted that 75% people give their clothes to others which is a good indication of society. While 19% stuff it forever even if not in use. On the other hand. 6% completely destroy them. * Risks associated with new trends The elements of fashion not liked by the target youngsters can backfire and become a risk for the Fashion Brands. As, “The fashion industry is the ultimate fashion victim”
Other Risks include: Chapter 5 Extract Chapter 6 Attachments Survey Questionnaire Fashion Trends in Pakistan I am a student of MBIT from IBIT, PU and this questionnaire is purely for research purpose and the information you provide help me gain better understanding of Changing Fashion Trends in Pakistan. The success of this research depends on honest answers so I assure that your response will be kept confidential. Tick the answer you prefer. SECTION 1: YOU C. Occupation? a) Student b) Job c) Business d) Other, Please Specify ___________ 1. A. Age? a) 15-20 b) 21-25 c) 26-30 d) 31-35
D. Gender? a) Male b) Female B. Family Monthly Income? e) 15000-25000 f) 26000-35000 g) 36000-50000 h) Above 50000 E. How are you feeling today? c) happy c) excited d) sad d) depressed SECTION 2: YOUR FASHION 1. Fashion to you is: a) Looking cool and hipc) Comfort ability b) Looking sober and matured) A way to express my inner self 2. Which current fashion trend you love the most? _____________________________________________________________________ 3. Which fashion trend you hate the most? ______________________________________________________________________ 4. c) Present day fashion ) Celebrity Which fashion style/trend do you tend to follow when you purchase clothes? a) Formal b) Casual 5. Who is your ideal fashion personality? _____________________________ 6. What does your clothing portray about your personality a) Open Personalityb) Shy person c) Hip Hop d) Decent e) Lively f) Bold 7. Which of your accessories adds glamour to your overall personality? a) Clothingb) Mobile phone c) Jewelry d) Shoes e) Wrist watches f) Glasses 8. What influences you the most when you buy clothes? a) Ongoing Trendsb) Designer/Brand c)Celebrity d) Pricee) Advertisementsf) Friends 9.
How much are you willing to spend on one item of clothing from a new trend of fashion? a)1000-2000 b)2000-5000 c)5000-10000d)10000 & above 10. What would encourage you to try out new fashion and style? a) Celebrity’s Styleb) Friend’s Suggestion c) Family’s Suggestiond) An Occasion | 11. What do you mostly dislike about fashion? a) Changes quicklyb) Expensive c) Not suitable d) Turns into a craze 12. What is the most recently added item to your accessories? ____________________________ 13. Does a new trend influence your wardrobe? a) Yes b) Noc)Oftend) Rarely 14. Do you readily adopt new trends? ) Yes b) Noc)Oftend) Rarely 15. How do you judge a fabric? a)Touchb) Viewc) Brand named) Fabric name 16. Are your purchases? c) Plannedb) Immediate | 17. What is your action when a dress or an accessory attracts you? d) Immediately buyc) Consult a friend or family member e) Search for alternativesd) Search for more information 18. Which kinds of shopping destination you buy most of your clothes from? a) Super markets and shopping mallsc) Fashion shows and exhibitions b) Designer boutiques & Brandsd) Bazaars 19. What are your cultural preferences in fashion? a) Family culturec)Western culture ) Regional cultured) A combination of trends from multiple cultures 20. What do you do after your purchase? i) When satisfied a) Refer others b) Feel achievement c) Repeat purchases from the same place ii) When dissatisfied a) Feel angry b)Tell others to avoid c) Never visit the same place 21. How do you dispose of your clothes a) Keep the item b) Destroy c) Give it to others to use 22. What would you mostly like to see in an advertisement? a) Pictures of the shop and locationc) Products available b) Information about the designer d) All the above 3. Which medium do you trust for your purchases? a) Magazinesd)Fashion Shows & Exhibitions b) Billboardse) TV Commercials c) Online Sources Moderator Guide I Thank you all very much for helping us and participating in our project research. What we are conducting is called a focus group. It is mainly a form of discussion among all of you on our research topic. You can agree, disagree on any point or you can just provide with a comment. You can also propose any new idea regarding the subject and you can freely express your views and opinions. This is just like a routine lounge talk.
We request you to convey your point clearly and if possible one at a time to save from any confusion or misunderstanding. If any questions regarding the format of the focus group, you can ask ? Now, I’l explain the topic, we are here to discuss. That is The Changing Fashion Trends in Pakistan. Everybody today, is somehow associated with fashion either in favor or against. . Similarly, you all must be used to of decorating your wardrobe with latest fashion articles. Most of you would be used to of visiting various bazaars and malls for your clothing needs. And must be having your views and suggestions for this very industry.
We are going to talk about the same. Before we start, if any one have any queries. Please do ask? Now friends , We’ll continue with our discussion Warm Up Questions:- 1. How much time do you spare for your leisure activities? 2. How much time in a month do you spent on shopping? 3. Do you consider shopping a source of entertainment? Specific Questions:- Current Scenario of Audience 4. Do you visit exhibitions for your purchases? 5. Do you consider fashion shows a source of latest updates for your fashion? 6. May I ask about your favorite places to shop? 7. What is your recently added item in your clothing? 8.
Are you price conscious or style conscious? Reason of Failure 9. What do you think is the main content of our Pakistani fashion currently being promoted? 10. What is that one factor that stops you from adopting a fashion trend? 11. In your opinion, what is the one major difference between ordinary and designer brand items? 12. When I speak of Fashion, What picture comes to your mind? 13. Now, what if the same product is being sold in a local and a designer brand, Which one you’ll prefer to buy? Why? I am really thankful to you all for this valuable effort and specially your time. Bibliography Solomon, M. R. Consumer Behavior.