In addition, PMAS is best compatible with a formal management system as identified by Shrivastava, 1981 whereby organizational learning is perpetuated through the design and implementation of formal management systems for information, planning, and control. As such, the systemization of organizational activities draws upon the knowledge of individual members and standardizes the ways in which this knowledge may be used.
The PMAS cycle consists of 3 primary review stages that are best compatible with the Deutero-learning model from Argyris & Schon’s theories of the different levels of organizational learning (shown in figure 2). The PMAS cycle commences with both supervisor and employee developing and agreeing on performance objective targets that represent benchmark standards of performance enunciated in the employee’s work plan. At a mid-point, typically a 6 months period, a half-year review is conducted to assess if performance is on track – that is, is the employee achieving the expected results.
The outcome of this mid-point review forms the first loop of the Deutero-learning which seeks to answer the question did we do things right? Any adverse performance is subject to corrective action in order to improve year-end results. Close to the end of the fiscal year an annual performance review is undertaken. This review is more detailed and seeks to test the validity of assumptions made in crafting the employee’s work plan, primarily performance standards and targets agreed on. This process forms the second loop, which seeks to answer the question are we doing the right thing?
The third loop is formed where the results of individual employee annual reviews are compiled; analyzed; distilled into divisional/departmental reports and submitted for group analysis via an organizational performance assessment, the findings of which are incorporated into the ministry’s operational plan for the next year and also used to update the organization’s strategic plan. From this third loop, organizational learning is concretized by means of establishing new objectives and standards of operations that adds to organizational memory and serves to guide future action.
PMAS also comprises a staff suggestion policy that generates new ideas and actions in order to foster a team approach to organizational improvement. OPMs’ suggestion policy also acknowledges suggestions that have led to cost savings and cost recovery. Acknowledgements are observed in either cash or kind.
Developing Knowledge of Action-outcome Two examples of knowledge bases that exist at the Office of the Prime Minister are (1) Management Information System knowledge base and (2) a Procurement Contractor database. Institutionalized experience PMAS helps to refine as well as improve routine tasks and subsequently facilitates the creation of Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs). In addition to the structured approach of PMAS the ministry attempts to build an enabling culture for life-long learning through the provision of scholarship, coaching mentoring a number of educational foras/group sharing sessions (financial planning, career development) and access to self-actualization learning via library, journal and magazine subscriptions.
Based on the evaluation, the gaps that are identified as follows:
Opportunist learning: Political interference leads to seemingly adhoc decision making which bypasses the ministry’s SOPs. This practice has been identified as a threat to achieving the ministry’s mission. This practice arose because the ministry is trying to be all things to all people. Fragmented Learning: Both Staff and mangers view PMAS as onerous, as a consequence they are not as diligent with keeping logs and journal. This leads to a break in transition of individual learning being committed to organisational memory.
Situational Learning: Given the political nature of the office, incidence of situational learning is limited. Although PMAS encourages team building through shared solutions (problem solving), Given the political nature situational learning more often occurs during crisis situations, where individual on the spot problem-solving does not change personal mental models and as such the organization is not offered a chance to absorb the new knowledge. Action Plan (refer Link between Individual and Organizational Organization Kim p13-end)