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Which of the following are adaptations to land of both gymnosperms and angiosperms but are lacking in ferns and mosses?

A) spores
B) true roots, stems, and leaves
C) fruits and flowers
D) pollen and seeds
E) vascular system


Mammals have two traits that set them apart from all other animals. These are

A) body hair or fur, and being homeothermic.
B) amniotic eggs and milk production.
C) four-chambered heart and body hair or fur.
D) four-chambered heart and milk production.
E) body hair or fur, and milk production.


Which of the following is not a characteristic differentiating Neanderthals from modern humans?

A) Neanderthals had projecting brow ridges.
B) Neanderthals were stronger.
C) Neanderthals had larger noses.
D) Neanderthals were shorter.
E) Neanderthals had smaller brains.


In cnidarians, nematocysts are important in

A) excretion of wastes.
B) movement.
C) obtaining prey.
D) obtaining oxygen from the water.
E) food digestion.


Cnidarians and ctenophores are similar in that they both have

A) mesoderm.
B) a digestive tract with two openings.
C) radial symmetry.
D) a pseudocoel.
E) nematocysts.


It is generally thought that four critical innovations arose during the evolution of our ape-like ancestors into humans. All of the following are innovations except

A) toolmaking.
B) expansion of the human brain.
C) development of the opposable thumb.
D) bipedalism.
E) use of brain power for abstract thought.


In bryophytes, the rhizoids

A) obtain water.
B) obtain nutrients.
C) lure possible prey.
D) serve as attachment structures.
E) are involved in reproduction.


Which of the following characteristics is not shared by typical birds and mammals?

A) insulating skin structures
B) four limbs
C) milk production
D) endothermy
E) four-chambered heart


It is generally thought that animals have undergone four major physiological and anatomical innovations during their evolution. These are (in no particular order)

A) origin of patterns of embryonic development, development of the versatile forelimb, origin of the multichambered heart, multicellularity.
B) bilateral symmetry, development of tissues, origin of the multichambered heart, origin of patterns of embryonic development.
C) development of tissues, photosynthesis, bilateral symmetry, multicellularity.
D) multicellularity, bilateral symmetry, origin of patterns of embryonic development, development of tissues.
E) development of the versatile forelimb, multicellularity, origin of patterns of embryonic development, development of tissues.


Lichens are

A) capable of causing some obscure diseases.
B) parasitic interactions between a fungus and an alga.
C) insensitive to changes in the environment.
D) symbiotic associations between a fungus and an alga.
E) only found growing on living matter.


Fungi exhibit certain characteristics. One of these characteristics is that they

A) are capable of carrying on photosynthesis.
B) reproduce using seeds and pollen.
C) lack cell nuclei.
D) reproduce using spores.
E) are prokaryotes.


In general, mammals are not good at dispersing chili plant seeds because

A) the chili seeds do not stick to the mammals’ fur.
B) the seeds die as they pass through the digestive tract.
C) the mammals are the main pollinators for the chili plant.
D) the mammals do not travel very far before they release the chili seeds.
E) chili seeds are dispersed mainly by the wind.


Green algae such as Ulva demonstrate an alteration of generations. The diploid phase is called the

A) diploid generation.
B) gametophyte generation.
C) zygote.
D) sporophyte generation.
E) embryo.


The segmented worms of the phylum Annelida

A) have an open circulatory system.
B) possess setae on each segment.
C) display radial symmetry.
D) move by use of flagella.
E) are acoelomate.


All members of the phylum Chordata share

A) gills present throughout their lives.
B) exoskeletons.
C) tails present throughout their lives.
D) a vertebral column.
E) a notochord present sometime in their lives.


In plants, the secondary metabolites are primarily responsible for

A) nutrition.
B) food gathering.
C) protection against ultraviolet radiation.
D) defense.
E) overcoming air pollutants.


Plants have adapted to dry land by evolving all of the following except

A) tissues to conduct water through the plant.
B) forms of chlorophyll more efficient at capturing light.
C) structures to protect reproductive cells and embryos.
D) association with mycorrhizae to improve mineral uptake.
E) secreting a waxy coating to prevent water loss.


Which of the following adaptations to life on land is found in both insects and modern reptiles?

A) ability to fly
B) body surfaces that resist evaporation
C) two pairs of walking legs
D) metamorphosis from a larval form
E) tracheae to distribute oxygen


This characteristic allows fungi to withstand heat and drought conditions.

A) specialized organelles
B) spores
C) mycelia
D) hyphae
E) cell walls


All of the following are parts of a flower except the

A) cuticle.
B) stamen.
C) fruit.
D) carpel.
E) ovary.



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