HEALTH AND SAFETY IN THE HEALTH AND SOCIAL CARE WORKPLACE Table of Contents TASK 1:2 Reference Guide for Health and Social Care workplace:2 Overview:2 1. 1 Reviews of systems, policies and procedures for communication: Health and Safety2 1. 2 Responsibilities in a specific health and social care:4 1. 2. 1 Organizational Responsibilities:4 1. 2. 2 Monitoring and evaluating process:5 1. 2. 3 Inspecting the workplace:5 1. 2. 4 Management Structure:5 1. 2. 5 Representation:6 1. 3 Analysis of Health and Safety priorities:6 1. 3. 1 Safety aid:6 1. 3. 1. 1 Walking aid:6 1. 3. 1. 2 Wheelchair:6 1. 3. 1. 2 Security system:6 1. 3. 1. 2. Door locks:6 1. 3. 1. 2. 2 Cameras:7 1. 3. 1. 2. 3 Gates:7 1. 3. 1. 2. 4 Alarms:7 1. 3. 1. 2. 5 Patrol:7 1. 3. 1. 3 Maintenance:7 1. 3. 1. 3. 1 Ventilation:7 1. 3. 1. 3. 2 Temperature Control:7 1. 3. 1. 3. 3 Buildings:8 1. 3. 1. 3. 4 Consequences of malfunction:8 TASK 2:8 Ways that creates impact on Health and Safety requirements on customers and employees in health and social care workplace:8 2. 1 Care planning:8 2. 1. 1 Meeting needs:8 2. 1. 2 Ensuring safety:9 2. 1. 3 Security:9 2. 1. 4 Maximising well being9 2. 1. 5 Principles of good practise:9 2. 2 Analysis of electricity precaution according to Health and Safety policy:9 2. Possible dilemmas while implementing systems and policies: health, safety and security10 2. 3. 1 Dilemmas relating to implementation of health and safety measures:10 2. 3. 2 Addressing of dilemmas while implementation of health and safety measures:11 2. 4 Effect of non- compliance with health and safety legislation:11 2. 4. 1 Financial:11 2. 4. 2 Legal:12 2. 4. 3 Moral:12 2. 4. 4 Physical:12 2. 4. 5 Health:12 TASK 3:13 Understanding of monitoring: Health and Safety policies and practices13 3. 1 Monitor and Review:13 3. 1. 1 Audit of risk:13 3. 1. 2 Review of practise:14 3. 1. 3 Learning from experience:14 . 1. 4 Updating policies and procedures:14 3. 2 Effectiveness of health and safety policies: Positive health and safety culture14 3. 3 Own contributions:15 3. 3. 1 Responsibilities:15 3. 3. 2 Compliance:15 3. 3. 4 Interactions with individuals:15 Name of Organization: Care UK Number of Employees: 37 employees Care UK is serving and helping people for more than 30 years. List of services included are residential and nursing care homes; community care and support for challenging persons; primary and secondary healthcare; mental health treatment, care and support [Available from: http://careuk. om/who-are-care-uk/care-uk-story, 21st November 2012]. TASK 1: Reference Guide for Health and Social Care workplace: Overview: The purpose of this assignment, through the reference guide is to review the systems of health and safety policies adopted in the workplace. These health measures should be generated among staff, clients and visitors. Procedure of communication for promoting health and safety is also reviewed. 1. 1 Reviews of systems, policies and procedures for communication: Health and Safety Adoption of health and safety measures is observed in health and social care workplace.
Chattopadhyay (2008) mentioned that these adoptions should be communicated in a detailed way so that every individual relating to it can avail these measures. Arguing to it, Burke et al. (2011) noted that the implementation of health and safety measures are often not present adequately due to which lack of proper safety measures occurs. As per OHSAS 18001, occupational health and safety measures are based on identification of hazardous material, risk assessment and determination of applicable controls.
Good communication helps an individual in exchanging information, ideas and thoughts. Vogel (2012) noted that besides performing good quality of the job, good communication helps in establishing strong professional relationship. In today’s climate, health and safety legislations are applied at every organization irrespective of their size and product type. As mentioned in HS (G) 65, the first guide was to provide assistance to directors, managers and health professional where successful management of health and safety is required.
Similarly, as per the Health and Safety Executive 1991, organization needs to manage all health and safety measures of the same degree and standard as other core activities of that business firm [Available from: http://www. atl. org. uk/health-and-safety/legal-framework/health-safety-legislation. asp, 21st November 2012]. Researcher reviewed that adoption of health and safety measures is important to implement in any workplace as it promotes well-being and disease free environment. As per Health and Safety Act 1974, workers can be assigned for individual responsibility and it can be applied to both employers and employees.
This act also ensures that any safety tool or measures cannot be hampered as it is for general interest of staffs, clients and visitors (Zanko and Dawson, 2012). The Health and Safety at Work Act 1974, a governing body which is operated for managing risk responsibility is the structure of the safety committee [Available from: http://careuk. com/who-are-care-uk/care-uk-story, 21st November 2012]. The researcher observed the structure of the organization that deals with responsibilities for Health and Safety. Fig 1: Organizational structure for Health and Safety in a Workplace Source: Created by the author 1. Responsibilities in a specific health and social care: Health and social care ensure that safety measures are properly adopted at each level of organization. Few common responsibilities are as stated below: 1. 2. 1 Organizational Responsibilities: It must be everyone’s responsibility to maintain the health and safety measures within the organization. Loewenson (2008) stated that importance of these activities will be on as same as any other core activity of the company. On the other hand, Hughes and Ferrett (2012) opined that every individual does not pay much attention to the precautionary measures and behave in a reluctant manner.
However, researcher evaluated that rule as per health and safety must be followed not only by employers and employees but also by clients and visitors. 1. 2. 2 Monitoring and evaluating process: Practices as per different acts and regulations must be monitored. Lund (2011) noted that in many workplaces, although the imposition of safety measures is stated but are hardly followed properly. Burke et al. (2011) describes that safety measures are directed needs to be followed as it ensures a sense of security at the workplace.
However, proper evaluation is required for accessing the effectiveness of safety measures. 1. 2. 3 Inspecting the workplace: Safety officer should inspect the workplace within a certain interval of time, this will help in getting the feedback of the employees. Interaction with staff is beneficial as proper access over availability of health and safety measures can be adopted. Chattopadhyay (2008) commented that the safety officer should try to properly locate the areas which can be hazardous at the workplace and accordingly measures should be adopted. 1. 2. 4 Management Structure:
Researcher analyzed that management structure should try to be patient with the employees and problems relating to them. Rutherford and Forget (2008) mentioned that an efficient management structure tries to ensure maximum safety and health measures so that workers can work in a secured environment. On the other hand, Zanko and Dawson (2012) noted that certain management system also exists which are not bothered about the security measures installed within the organization. Such organization treats their employees as just a machine of producing output for the organization.
Researcher’s comments that management should ensure all the safety measures as mentioned in the Health and Safety act 1974. 1. 2. 5 Representation: Final stage of responsibilities for representing the health and safety measures lies within the management authorities. According to Vogel (2012), a proper representation of these precautionary measures makes the staff, client and visitors aware about the availability of different safety measures. 1. 3 Analysis of Health and Safety priorities: List of priorities helps in providing attention towards its importance.
An organization gives priorities to certain safety measures which depend on the level of its need within the business organization (Kriebel et al. 2011). 1. 3. 1 Safety aid: All persons engaged in the company have to be provided with certain safety aids so that workplace can be ensured of being a secured place. 1. 3. 1. 1 Walking aid: organization is equipped with working aid facility so that any person who is unable of walking properly due to creation injury can take aid of it. Moreover, Barten et al. (2009) stated that it helps in avoiding any barrier to work for that concerned individual. . 3. 1. 2 Wheelchair: this machine helps in locating one person to a different place, even if there is some problem in walking for that individual (Earle and Heymann, 2009). 1. 3. 1. 2 Security system: Each organization’s workplace is instilled with safe and secure systems so that security can be provided to persons engaging in work. 1. 3. 1. 2. 1 Door locks: At workplace, security locks avoid any chances of theft or robbery. Many important documents and cash need to be in secured zone (Stranks, 2010). In such cases, security locks are needed by the organization. . 3. 1. 2. 2 Cameras: Cameras such as CCTVs help in prevention of any misdeed. Employees are secured that all activities within the workplace are recorded via camera so threat of any illegal activities can be recorded (Stranks, 2010). 1. 3. 1. 2. 3 Gates: Gates with a security check helps in preventing entry of unauthorized persons. Such practice increases the safety measures and thus only restricted number of visitors or clients can enter in the workplace. 1. 3. 1. 2. 4 Alarms: workplace installs alarms so that during emergency people can be aware instantly.
Lund (2011) noted that alarms are usually used to evacuate the place immediately so that no harm to human’s life can be given. 1. 3. 1. 2. 5 Patrol: According to Chattopadhyay (2008), regular patrolling in a workplace is used to provide a check to the safety measures that are installed within the workplace. Burke et al. (2011) noted that within an organization, lack of regular patrolling leads to outdated and lack of safety tools. Thus, as opined by researcher regular patrolling mist be done and up gradation of safety tools should be provided. . 3. 1. 3 Maintenance: As per mentioned in the Health and safety Executive 1991, workplace needs to be maintained from time to time so that any replace of safety products or tools if required can be done. 1. 3. 1. 3. 1 Ventilation: As per the Health and Safety Regulations 2002, workplace needs to be ventilated in a properly manner so that atmosphere can be clean and comfortable. Zanko and Dawson (2012) mentioned that ventilation helps in avoiding dilute warm and humid air which is helpful for maintain freshness of air. 1. 3. 1. 3. Temperature Control: Personal factors get combined along with environmental factors and eventually ‘thermal comfort’ is comprised [Available from: http://www. atl. org. uk/health-and-safety/legal-framework/health-safety-legislation. asp, 21st November 2012]. As per Management of Health and Safety at Work 1999, temperature at workplace should be at least 160 C at normal condition, whereas if physical effort is involved then at least 130 C is required. 1. 3. 1. 3. 3 Buildings: Workplace’s buildings are expected to have adequate free space so that people can move about easily within the workplace (Vogel, 2012).
Room’s volume is ideally expected to be of at least 11 cubic metres per person is minimum requirement. 1. 3. 1. 3. 4 Consequences of malfunction: Workplace should ensure that if any mishap or breakdown of any equipment takes place then consequences of such malfunction should be considered immediately. Hughes and Ferrett (2012) commented that such events should not be responsible in effecting workplace. Researcher opined that such cases should be avoided and in future necessary precautions must be adopted. TASK 2:
Ways that creates impact on Health and Safety requirements on customers and employees in health and social care workplace: 2. 1 Care planning: Having identified the risks involved in the workplace, researcher produces a care plan to access the impact of these safety measures on clients, staffs and visitors. Steps that lead to proper care planning are enlisted below: 2. 1. 1 Meeting needs: While formation of care planning, Santana et al. (2007) noted that management must ensure that needs as per employees and customers are met. Say if an organisation is more prone to accidents due to breakdown of equipments.
Healy (2011) opined that in such cases, organisation should prioritise to maintenance of safety needs. However, researcher feels that if an alignment between needs and safety measures are not met then effectiveness of health and safety measures cannot be achieved. 2. 1. 2 Ensuring safety: In an organisation, an efficient manager must provide safety as per the danger zone of the concerned workplace. Davis and Souza, (2009) felt that if safety measures are adopted but are not undertaken properly then the effectiveness of such measures cannot be utilized within the workplace. . 1. 3 Security: A security system which countercheck for availability of essential safety tools and mechanism must be provided so that a secured mechanism can be installed (Chattopadhyay, 2008). 2. 1. 4 Maximising well being: Improvement in health and safety measures leads to well being of people engaged with workplace. Safety measures that are installed at workplace helps in prevention of any mishap and eventually people’s lives are saved. 2. 1. 5 Principles of good practise: People getting adapted to safety measures get in touch of good practise.
Vogel (2012) observed that people who use these safety and precautionary tools are more inclined for having a safe life. 2. 2 Analysis of electricity precaution according to Health and Safety policy: While operating any electrical equipment, all instructions as per health and safety instructions, users have to follow the listed procedures so that chances of accidents can be operated. Say if a computer needs to be switched on at a workplace; it is management’s duty to ensure that sockets of computer are shock proof and safe for the user. It is necessary for each user that as per safety manual kit, precautions must be taken.
Burke et al. (2011) explains that certain precautions that are necessarily followed while using computer are enlisted below: •In case of excessive heat, laboratory instructor has to be informed about computer’s condition •If heat does not minimise then user should move away to a secure place •If case of excess noise, laboratory instructor should be informed as soon as possible •Under any situation direct off via power switch should be avoided •Hacking is strictly prohibited including alteration of system’s software •If case of unsafe emitting of monitor’s lights, laboratory instructor must be informed. 2. Possible dilemmas while implementing systems and policies: health, safety and security 2. 3. 1 Dilemmas relating to implementation of health and safety measures: After diagnosis of risks involved in a workplace, next step lies in formulation of safety measures. Loewenson (2008) suggested that while assessing risks, it needs to be observed that concerned people must be helped in the best possible way. As per Lund (2011), risk assessment’s importance is related to provisions of health care services. Arguing to it, Zanko and Dawson (2012) mentioned that care planning should be framed without any involvement of risk factor.
In researcher’s viewpoint, care planning is a daily habit within every individual. At workplace, it becomes essential for service users and service providers to assess risk through mutual help [Available from: http://www. wst. tas. gov. au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0009/76896/GB133. pdf, 20th November 2012]. Researcher has observed that practical application of risk assessment involves many conflicts. As for example, in Care UK, physio-therapists usually states that care workers of the organisation is more comfortable with moving and handling equipments while handling patients of the organisation.
According to physio-therapists, these care workers should help and encourage patients while walking and moving so that more care and support can be provided. On the other hand, as stated by Chattopadhyay (2008), care workers of the organisations comments that as they spend maximum time along with the patients so they are at better place for risk assessment of the patients. As per worker’s feedback, patients feel more easy and comfortable in such tools. However, an effective risk assessment is possible if a joint consent over the assessment can be provided by the organization. 2. 3. Addressing of dilemmas while implementation of health and safety measures: While implementing measures related to health and safety, certain list of dilemmas that can be addressed is via risk-benefit analysis. As per Menendez et al. (2007), risk-benefit analysis can be used as a work of comparison with a situation that has chances of deriving benefits. Say for instance, if any patient is suffering from communicable disease then that patient needs to be treated separately. But as per Management of Health and Safety at Work 1999, all customers and clients (here patients) should be treated equally [Available from: http://www. se. gov. uk/managing/essentials. htm, 20th November 2012]. However, in case of care agencies, these patients has o be treated differently for the safety of other patients, visitors and care workers. 2. 4 Effect of non- compliance with health and safety legislation: According to Vogel (2012), certain organisations are there which might not tend to fulfil the health and safety criteria as it involves time, money and legal procedures. Effects of such non-comnpliance lead to many outcomes that can hamper image of the company. Such list is stated below: 2. . 1 Financial: If organisation will not implement safety measures then investment of equipments will be saved. On the other hand, Zanko and Dawson (2012) noted that risk of people’s life will get increased and chances of accidents or bad health are encouraged. Thus, safety measures should be adopted so that financial costs in treatment of workers can be saved and their well being can be ensured. Moreover, accidents or bad health can also lead to stoppage of work which will be aid for the management while dealing with patients. 2. 4. 2 Legal:
Maintenance of health and safety measures are involved with various acts such as Health and Safety at Work Act 1974, Personal Protective Equipment at Work 1992 and Health and Safety (First Aid) 1981 etc. 2. 4. 3 Moral: If the organisation does not adopts procedures as stated in legislation of health and safety measures, then moral of the concerned people is low. Loewenson (2008) mentioned that availability of safety measures helps in encouraging moral of the people as a sense of security comes within them. 2. 4. 4 Physical: As stated by Burke et al. 2011), lack of safety tools increases the chances of physical hamper to any individual at workplace. Any barrier in workplace affects the quality of work and delay in work takes place. 2. 4. 5 Health: Lack of safety and health system will lead to bad health of the concerned individual which will be either or patients or care workers or visitors. Organisation cannot afford to risk health of persons so installation of these safety measures is vital for smooth functioning of the organisation [Available from: http://www. hse. gov. uk/managing/essentials. htm, 20th November 2012]. TASK 3:
Understanding of monitoring: Health and Safety policies and practices Researcher has viewed the practices and policies of health and safety within a workplace. Such policies are adopted by organisation so that needs can be regulated via recent monitoring and any issues can be recognised immediately. 3. 1 Monitor and Review: Management seeks that safety manual kit as mentioned is operated and followed by each and every individual within the organisation. Steps that are followed for monitoring implementation are as following: Fig 2: Design of monitoring health and safety policies
Source: Created by the author 3. 1. 1 Audit of risk: Management keeps a steady watch that risk factors are audited (here checked) at regular intervals. Chattopadhyay (2008) mentioned that audit of risk is preliminary required so that as per requirements, demands can be achieved. 3. 1. 2 Review of practise: Practise that is pre-determined within the workplace is accessed and reviewed. Earle and Heymann (2009) explains that this review helps in accessing the effectiveness of the implementation along with judging that whether it is followed by every individual or not. 3. 1. 3 Learning from experience:
If in organisation any mishap or accident that had occurred previously is observed by management. Kriebel et al. (2011) describes that safety required in experienced incidents must be already made available into the organisation so that immediate effect to it can be provided. The researcher added that it provides in instant aid for the sufferer. 3. 1. 4 Updating policies and procedures: Within a certain interval of time, these policies and their practices should be altered and up dated. The researcher notices that organisation updates methods of safety to ensure better health and safety precautions. 3. Effectiveness of health and safety policies: Positive health and safety culture When health and safety policies are implemented within an organisation then a sense of positive culture is intruded in the working atmosphere. Researcher thinks that work culture gets a positive response when concerned people are satisfied with the work atmosphere and their security provisions. Thus, as opined by Davis, and Souza (2009), an effective health and safety policy is essential for a smooth organisation. Effect of health and policies must be among individuals so that they can take precaution as per their need.
Teams that are working in a group should ensure that their activities are not hampering anyone and safe procedure must be selected while performing any tasks. Stranks (2010) pointed out that managers are to a great extent responsible for effectiveness of health and safety policies. Lastly, organisational levels authorities should ensure that all up dated machineries and tools of safety measures are available at workplace. 3. 3 Own contributions: Researcher has contributed some needs that must be recognised within the framework of successful organisation. They are: 3. 3. 1 Responsibilities:
Researcher opines that each and every individual should realize their importance within the organisation. Any steps that might create a sense of insecurity must be avoided by care worker, doctors and staffs etc. 3. 3. 2 Compliance: All legislations should be followed to the greatest possible extent so that necessary affiliations can be observed 3. 3. 4 Interactions with individuals: Individuals should promote interactions among each other so that better precautionary measures can be explained to each other. REFERENCES: Barten, F. , Fustukian, S. and De Haan, S. (2009) ‘The Occupational Health Needs of Workers: A New International Approach. Social Justice, 23 Burke, R. J. , Cooper, C. L. and Clarke, S. (2011) Occupational Health and Safety, 2nd ed. England: Gower Publishing, Ltd. Chattopadhyay, O. (2008) ‘Safety and Health of Urban Informal Sector Workers’, Indian Journal of Community Medicine, 30 Davis, L. and Souza, K. (2009) Integrating occupational health with mainstream public health in Massachusetts: an approach to intervention. Public Health Rep. 124(1):5-14. Earle, A. and Heymann, J. (2009) ‘A comparative analysis of paid leave for the health needs of workers and their families around the world. ’ Journal of Comparative Policy Analysis, 8 Healy, J. 2011) Improving health care safety and quality: reluctant regulators, 3rd ed. England: Ashgate Publishing Hughes, P. and Ferrett, E. (2012) International Health and Safety at Work, 2nd ed. London: Routledge Kriebel, D. , Jacobs, M. M. and Tickner, J. (2011) Lessons Learned Solutions for Workplace Safety and Health, University of Massachusetts Lowell Loewenson, R. H. (2008) Health impact of occupational risks in the informal sector in Zimbabwe, International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, 4(4): 264-74 Lund, F. (2011) ‘Towards and inclusive Occupational Safety and