Blue notes- Blue melodies are full of slightly altered pitches. Lowered 3rd and lowered 7th 10. Standard song form (ABA)- a musical structure that typically consists of two musical parts (A and B) played in four sections. Each section is usually 8 measures long. 11 . “Smooch” tenor- Ballad singer for the easy listening, slow dancing love songs 12. 12-bar blues progression- so called because each verse Is twelve bars long. No matter what the tempo of the song, there Is a basic beat that Is counted in groups of four, with four beats to each part.
Arranged Into three groups of four measures. 13. Rockabilly Polymaths-The combination of two contrasting rhythmic beats simultaneously. There are two main types of polymaths: rhythms that carry “over the bar” and rhythms that exist “within the bar. ” 14. Slide guitar- The term slide is in reference to the sliding motion of the slide against the strings, while bottleneck refers to the original material of choice for such slides, which were the necks of glass bottles. 15. Station (Ref) – Repeated melodic figures on the low strings 16.
Grist (Jail)- African musicians who correspond most closely to the blues singers; hailstorm/musicians room northwest Africa. W. C. Handy 17. Double stops-is the act of playing two notes simultaneously on a melodic percussion instrument (like a marimba) or stringed instrument (for example, a violin or a guitar). 18. Bent notes- to slightly alter the pitch of a note by pilling on a string, raising or lowering the voice, or tightening or loosening the embouchure, or mouth position, on a horn. (Often considered a blue note) 19.
Barbershops rhythm- The surface rhythm of a guitar accompaniment subdivides the basic pulse into a triple pattern, resulting in a bouncy, uneven rhythm. 20. Two-beat bass- bassist plays the root of the chord on the first beat of a 4/4 measure and the fifth of the chord on the third beat of a measure. Heavy emphasis on beats 1 & 3. 21 . Tonic- the main or central pitch off major key. Tonic also refers to the chord that Is built on the first pitch of a scale and Is therefore the mall or central chord, or home chord of a major or minor scale. 22.
Dominant- The is heavily accented 24. Backseat- 2 & 4 beats are heavily accented 25. Subdivision- the fourth pitch of a major or minor scale. Also refers to the chord that is built on the fourth pitch of a scale. 26. Work song- a piece of music closely connected to a specific form of work, either sung while conducting a task (often to coordinate timing) or a song linked to a task or trade which might be a connected narrative, description, or protest song. 27. Strophic song form- a song form in which each verse of the text is sung to the same music.
The music for each verse stays the same, and only the lyrics change. 28. String band- Earliest country groups; consist of lead vocalist, back up vocalists, fiddles, acoustic guitars, banjo, and acoustic bass (sometimes mandolin). 29. Turnaround-Very often on the last measure of the regression (measure 12), the dominant chord is played to set up the return of the tonic chord at the beginning of the next verse. 30. Fill- The last two measures of each sung line are an improvised instrumental passage, an instrumental response to the sung call.
Know who the following people are and with which rock or blues artists or styles they are associated: 1. Charley Patton- Father of the Delta Blues 2. Cosmic Mahatmas- Owner, recording engineer, J & M Studios 3. Jerry Libber & Mike Stroller- are among the most influential American songwriters and music producers in post-World War II popular music. . Alan Freed- known also as “Monody”, was an American disc-jockey who became internationally known for promoting African-American rhythm and blues music on the radio in the United States and Europe under the name of rock and roll. . Phil & Leonard Chess- was a record company executive and the founder of Chess Records 6. Big Mama Thornton- was an American rhythm and blues singer and songwriter. She was the first to record the hit song “Hound Dog” in 1952. 7. Sam Philips- founder of Sun Studios in Memphis, TN 8. Scotty Moore- Lead guitarist in Elvis’ band 9. Cool. Tom Parker- Elvis’ manager 10. Eddie Cochran- was an American rock and roll musician and an important influence on popular music during the late sass, early sass. 11.
Dave Bartholomew– Artist & Repertoire (A & R) Trumpet player, arranger, manager, band leader (“Mint that a shame” co wrote with Fats Domino) 12. Carl Perkins- Popular performer with Memphis rock and roll. Style includes: 1 . Anticipated chord 2. Finger picking 3. Dampens Strings 4. Single and Double bends 5. Syncopated rhythms The Blues Call and response performance technique from work songs. (Eased the drudgery of work) Deciding melody from field hollers Use of blue notes: lowered 3rd and 7th scale degrees Simple harmonic progression ( l, ‘V, V) from church hymns, folk songs.
Strophic Song Form: Series of verses, essentially same tone; lyrics change Country and Western (Southern country and Southwestern country swing) Southern Country: General Characteristics Simple Melodies (narrow range uncomplicated surface rhythms) Simple Harmonic structures Simple rhythms , clear meters Use of two – beat bass Little elaborate instrumental improvisation Vocalists often have a nasal quality, slide from pitch to pitch, use widening technique Texts often about unrequited love Lilted lovers) Blues + Country = Southern Country Style Jimmie Rogers (1867-1933) – sometimes called father of country music Blue Yodel (recur. 927) – Tea for Texas Hank Williams (1923- 1953) Move it On Over (recur. 1949) The Carter Family Southwestern Country Swing Mixes elements of southern country with big band swing. Originated in the Texas string bands, late sass’s -early sass’s To country swing band added: Drums Piano Steel Guitar (often) Horn Section Performed same repertoire as country band, but also included popular Jazz, pop and blues songs. Players encouraged to improvise Influenced mainstream country with use of drums, piano, electric instruments Bob Willis (1905 – 1975) Swing Blues (recur. 936) Boogie Woozier Woozier was popular with dance bands & their audiences Also known as “honey ton” from the type of bar in which the style originated. Possibly from Madding word bug – to beat a drum Possibly from English slang bogy – at first meaning dark apparitions. Later used to describe blacks in a derogatory fashion. Characteristics: Eight quick pulses per measure (8 to the bar) Uses the barbershops rhythm (bounced) Improvised right hand part Steady pattern (station – riff in left hand
Uses 12 – bar blues progression Made Lewis Rhythm and Blues General Characteristics Blue elements: Strophic song form ABA blues text form Melodic style (descending melody, blue notes) 12-bar blues progression Boogie Woozier elements: station bass line 8-pulse rhythm (walking rhythm… Constant) barbershops rhythm Big band swing elements: performance style instrumentation–piano, guitar, bass, drums (rhythm section), horns, Be prepared to recognize artists discussed in class who are representative of these styles. Be familiar with the specific style characteristics of: Rural Texas blues –
Single-note bass string runs Repatriated chords (chord that is spread) Repeated melodic, rhythmic figures (riffs) on bass strings Alternate playing on bass and treble strings (Alternate high and low) Single – String Melody Fills Blind Lemon Jefferson (c. 1883-1929) Heart Attack; found frozen the next day in his Cadillac. Field Holler Style Rural Mississippi delta blues- Frequent sliding from note to note Play slide guitar Wailing style of singing (forlorn) Small Melodic Range (low -up a little – then back down) Intricate Polymaths Rhythmic Choral fills (rather than melodic) Percussive playing style
Charley Patton : Father of the Delta Blues Robert Johnson (c. 1911-1938) Cross Road Blues (recur. 1936) – Song Echoes his “selling his soul to the devil” Died from complications of pneumonia from whiskey laced with strychnine) Part of the “27 Club” Texas Urban Blues Stronger influence on other blues, Jazz then on rock Generally use horns in back – up band Saxophone often the soloing instrument Strong Piano basis (rather than guitar) Aaron “T-bone” walker (1910-1975) Call it Stormy Monday Blues (recur. 1947) Huge influence on rock guitarists Urban Chicago blues- Derived from Mississippi Delta Blues Use of slide guitar
Frequent slides between notes Frequent use of bent notes Frequent use of double – stopped strings Intricate rhythm patterns, polymaths Single string fills (esp… B. B. King) Muddy (grandmother gave him this) Waters (from his Job) (1915-1984) McKinley Northfield Blow Wind Blow (recur. 1950) Harmonica (unique sound) B. B King Northern band rock ‘n’ roll (Bill Haley) Style Characteristics: A steady, mechanical meter Fast tempos Staccato guitar chords on the back beat (2 and 4) A slapped, walking bass line – (clicking) A boogie woozier station (often, not always) Bill Haley and The Comets Shake, Rattle, and Roll
Combines Western String Band (lead & background vocals, acoustic rhythm guitar, electric lead guitar, steel guitar) with rhythm and blues (bass, drums, piano, tenor saxophone) New Orleans dance rock- An overall bass foundation Boogie Woozier Barbershops rhythm (bounce feel) The basic beat is often subdivided into 3 quick pulses (triplet feel) Rhythms and meters are looser than the stiff, mechanical meters of Bill Haley and the Memphis Country style. Surface rhythms vary from a lively, bouncy beat to a slow, intense shuffle beat. Lead vocalists featured prominently Rarely any background singing
Rhythm & Blues band: lead vocal, piano, acoustic bass, drums, guitar, tenor saxophone Cosmic Mates – Owner, recording engineer, J & M Studios Dave Bartholomew – Artist & Repertoire (A & R) Trumpet player, arranger, manager, band leader Antoine “Fats” Domino Warm Creole accent 2 handed boogie woozier style Clear song structures “Fat Man” “Blue Berry Hill” Standard Song Form Little Richard Penman “Fire and Brimstone” singing style Gospel oriented, influenced Frenetic, energetic performing style Tenor Sax Solo about 2/3 into song Memphis country rock Rhythm & Blues Elements: Emphasis on back beat 2 bar blues format Country and Western Elements: Instrumentation (string bands) Strict rhythms Nasal singing style Pronunciation (accent) Overall treble – dominated sound (twangs) Instrumentation: Lead Electric guitar Acoustic rhythm guitar Acoustic bass (slap bass 2 beat (Beats 1 & 3)) Drums, Piano (After c. 1956) Generally no backup singers Lead Guitar Style: Bright, tinny character Corresponds with nasal voice Primarily country style picking (finger postsecondary on delta blues style (slide) Vocal Characteristics: Stuttering, yelps, cracked falsetto Sometimes slur words together Nasal singing
Other characteristics: Generally fast tempos Propelled by slapped bass Looser sense of rhythm than New Orleans Dance Recorded with natural studio echo Developed principally at Sun Studios, Memphis, TN (Sam Phillips) Carl Perkins-guitar style- Anticipated Chords Finger Picking Dampens Strings Single and Double Bends Syncopated Rhythms Elvis Presley–vocal style and influences Vocal Styles influences: Country: Clear pronunciation Southern accent Sense of melodic phrasing Hiccup, stutter (from yodel) Rural Blues Vocal Delivery (groups, blue notes) White Gospel Clear, four part harmonies Black Gospel Exuberant performing styles (shouting… Etc) Pop Low tones, vibrato Chicago rock ‘n’ roll Time: Generally Fast Tempos Hard-driving beat Even beat subdivisions Sound: Guitar based bands Soloists are guitarists Instrumentation like R&B Band: Vocal, Electric Guitar, Bass, Drums, Piano May use horns for background riffing Generally no back-up singers Guitar style derived from Chicago blues: Slide Guitar Finger sliding on strings Multiple -stopped strings (& bends) Hard, percussive picking style Harmony: 12 bar blues progression Form: Strophic Texts: Often Narrative Chuck Berry–guitar style and influences
Style Characteristics Strong use of syncopated rhythms Use of repeated rhythms, melodic figures (riffs) Guitar accompaniment from boogie woozier accompaniment Use of double & multiple stops Finger slides, single & double notes Click© introductory figure Guitar Sources: Charlie Christian, Carl Hogan Jazz) Muddy Waters, T-Bone Walker (Blues) Melodic Sense: Illinois Jacket daze Sax) Influenced by Muddy Waters, John Lee Hooker Heavy use of revere in amplifier Raw edged blues sound Chant – like, rhythmic solos Rhythms based on Cuba rhythm (“Boo Diddled Rhythm” or Hammond rhythm) Buddy Holly”guitar and vocal styles Combines elements of Memphis & Chicago Rock and Roll Background in Country & Western Vocal Characteristics Highpoint/Stuttering Changing vocal tone color mid-song Recorded own material almost exclusively First group with line-up of electric lead and rhythm guitars, bass, drums, and everyone sings. Double – tracked vocals and guitar solos (recorded voice 2nd) Popularized use of Fender Cotoneaster guitar.
Vocal group rock ‘n’ roll Predecessors: Black vocal harmony groups 1890-sass’s sass – ass: Mills Brothers, Ink Spots Vocal Traits based Gospel traditions: High tenor against low, rumbling bass Backing harmonies fill in chord Call and response between lead tenor and back-singers Sound Lead Vocalist supported by 3-4 back-up vocalists Tight, close harmony singing (“barbershop style”) Backup sings nonsense syllables Instrumentalists deep in background (except for solos) Band: guitar, drums, bass, piano, tenor saxophone Form: Many songs in standard song form Harmony: Many songs use the “do whop” progression: Tonic (major) Substantiated (minor) Subdivision Dominant (l -IV-IV-V) C: C- A mint -F -G Other: Many “one or two hit wonders” Many Bird Groups (Orioles, Ravens, Penguins, Larks… Etc) Many Car Groups (Falsehoods, El Dorado, Impalas… Etc)