Road clang can be defined as the occurence on a route due to the carelessness or skip by any party concerned or due to environmental factor ensuing in a hit that involved at least one traveling vehicle whereby harm or hurt is caused to any individual, belongings, vehicle, construction or animate being and is recorded by the constabulary ( ADB-ASEAN,2004 ) .
Road traffic clangs and hurts is a public wellness job worldwide. A study carried out by Pull offing Occupational Road Risk ( manORR ) found out that 8 million employees drive on company concern every twenty-four hours and 250 of them are earnestly injured every hebdomad. In Malaysia, entire figure of route clangs had increased from 24,581 instances in 1974 to 328,264 instances in 2005, making more than 135 % addition of accident instances over 30 old ages. Harmonizing to Cubi-Molla et.al ( 2010 ) , over 50 % of deceases caused by route clangs were associated to immature grownups in the age scope of 15-44 old ages old in the twelvemonth 2004.
Victims of route traffic clang may be fatal or suffer from hurts due to the effects of the clang. There is big fluctuation in the badness of hurts. It may change from a minor contusion to severe spinal or head hurt ensuing in wellness position that some would see worse than decease ( Guria, 1993 ) . There are two degrees of effects for non-fatal hurts, which are temporarily and long-run hurt. In some instances, the hurting and agony may go on for the remainder of the victim ‘s life. The quality of life of the individual may be reduces as a effect of the hurt ( Guria, 1993 ) .
World Health Organization ( WHO ) defines quality of life as the persons ‘ perceptual experiences of their place in life in the context of civilization and value systems in which they live, and in relation to their ends, outlooks and concerns. Quality of life encompasses multiple life spheres, such as physical wellbeing, mental wellbeing, societal relationships, functional ability and spiritualty.
Quality of life is an of import result step in the rating of interventions for a scope of chronic physical and psychological upsets ( Skevington, 1999 ) . In a survey conducted by Aitken et.al ( 2007 ) in Queensland Trauma Registry infirmaries in Australia, it was shown that the participants in the survey were found to hold a markedly lower quality of life overall compared with the Australian normative population. It is besides consistent with findings in international samples of injured people who have suffered from general hurt ( Holbrook, 1998 ) .
One of the facets in quality of life is health-related quality of life ( HRQoL ) . It is subjective and relates to the experience and feelings of an single individual. With bettering rates of endurance following route traffic hurts in many states, healthy old ages of life lost due to clangs progressively reflect the prevalence of disenabling sequelae ( Ameratunga et.al. , 2004 ) .
Numerous surveies have shown that injured patients are at hazard of hapless quality-of-life results, and may develop psychological jobs in both the short and long footings ( Ukpong et.al, 2008 ) . Harmonizing to Family Doctor.org, post-traumatic emphasis upset ( PTSD ) is a type of anxiousness job. It can develop when one experience or see a traumatic event such as terrible auto clang. Those with PTSD have problem get bying with and retrieving from traumatic events and frequently experience the effects for months or even old ages afterwards. Powerful fear-related memories of the event seems to be a major portion of PTSD.
There are significant impacts on households and friends and on the community in general. Harmonizing to healthinfonet.ecu.edu.au. , it is estimated that there are about 100 million households worldwide seeking to get by with the decease or disablement of a household member involved in a route clang. The impact of emotional is enourmous, and the common effects are depression and self-destruction.
Another effect of route clang is on the victim ‘s physical status. Based on a research survey conducted by Ameratunga et.al ( 2004 ) , planetary load of route traffic hurts projected to rank as the 3rd prima cause of disability-adjusted life old ages by 2020. Harmonizing to Ukpong et.al ( 2008 ) , physical disfunction and disfiguration caused by some of the hurts may adversely impact the patients ‘ ability to set about their day-to-day activities, lower their temper and sense of self-pride. In a survey conducted by Anderson et. Al. ( 1997 ) , six people from entire of 24 respondents had to moved to another type of lodging because of disablements ensuing from the clang.
Besides, route clang besides affect route clang victim ‘s societal life. There was a important decrease of quality of life in the sphere of societal relationships over clip in the injured patients. 29 % of respondents participated in a survey conducted by Anderson et. Al. ( 1997 ) was reported decreased societal activities such as decreased engagement in organisational and clean activities as a consequence of route clang. The fright of traffic and of being involved in clangs can take to reduces societal interaction and coherence as victims remain indoors. This resulted in more sedentary life style with effects wellness effects such as fleshiness and cardiovascular disease ( healthinfonet.ecu.edu.au ) .
Other than that, victim ‘s of route clang suffer from fiscal job. Anderson et. Al. ( 1997 ) reported that from their survey it was found that half of the respondents had fiscal job after two old ages of accident because they were unable to return to work any longer, which was due to long-run digest. Peoples who claimed compensation had worse wellness related quality of life, 12 months after hurt, every bit good as describing that their wellness position and disablement were worse from a really early phase after hurt ( Littleton et.al, 2010 ) . Financial job after route clang besides reported by Zaloshnja et.al ( 2004 ) , where pecuniary losingss were associated with medical attention ( such as infirmary, rehabilitation, prescription and accessory costs ) , belongings harm and legal costs.
The ground for carry oning this survey is there is limited literature on the results of hurt, including quality of life ( Aitken et.al, 2007 ) . A great trade of authorities clip and investing around the universe has been devoted to route safety in general. Until late, small attending was focused on work-related hurts happening on the route ( Murray, 2008 ) . In add-on, occupational safety and healths specializers have traditionally focused on safety in the workplace or on work sites instead than occupational route safety. The measuring of quality of life provides a utile method of measuring the results of wellness intercessions.
1.3 Research Justification
A great trade of authorities clip and investing around the universe has been devoted to route safety. Until late, small attending was focused on work-related hurts happening on the route. Furthermore, occupational safety and wellness specializers have traditionally focused on safety in the workplace or on work sites ( Murray, et.al, 2008 ) . Decrease in HRQoL among employees may impact their work public presentation. With the appraisal of quality of life for those employees who had involved in occupational route clang, it help employees to work as before the clang occur. The finding of HRQoL among occupational route clang victims may help wellness workers in the designation of cardinal countries to aim in planning and monitoring different intervention options. In add-on, steps of HRQoL are going of import in the bar schemes for cut downing the load of hurt.
1. To find the prevalence of hapless HRQoL after involved in route traffic clangs.
2. To analyze the impacts on the HRQoL among route traffic clangs victims.
3. To place the badness of the HRQoL among route traffic clangs victims.
4. To measure the long term HRQoL among route traffic clangs victims.
1. The prevalence of hapless HRQoL after involved in route traffic clangs are high as the
victims are exposed to many effects from the clangs.
2. The impacts on the HRQoL among route traffic clangs victims are physical wellness,
psychological, societal relationship and fiscal.
3. The badness of the HRQoL is vary between persons and besides depends on the
badness of hurt.
4. The HRQoL of route traffic clangs victims will be improved by clip as they are able
to accommodate the new physical status.
3.1 Sampling Method
Data will be collected from people identified from exigency section registries in three public infirmaries, which are Kuala Lumpur General Hospital, Seremban General Hospital and Melaka General Hospital. Choice of respondents will be based on the undermentioned inclusion standards:
1. Involved in occupational route clang in the last 7 yearss.
2. Occupational route clang victim that age between 18-40 old ages old.
3. Admission to infirmary for futher intervention transcending 24 hours.
4. Reason for admittance is trauma which is due to the route traffic clang and non due to other
digest that arise from route clang.
After possible respondents had been identified, they will be giving informed consent. Following, they need to reply the questionnaire sing their sociodemographic and clinical information. The same respondents will be follow-up to finish the Part II of the questionnaire within 2 two hebdomads after they involved in the route clang.
The questionnaire will be classified into 2 parts:
Part I: Sociodemographic and clinical informations
Sociodemographic informations – age, gender, educational attainment, employment, matrimonial position and contact information.
Clinical information – cause of hurt, site and type of hurt.
Part II: Health-Realted Quality of Life
Information for HRQoL of occupational route clang victims will be obtained through the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure ( COPM ) , that is conceptually derived from the Canadian Model of Occupational Performance ( Jolles et. Al, 2005 ) . It is designed to mensurate client-identified jobs in self-care, productiveness and leisure. The step is designed to observe alteration in a client ‘s self-perception of occupational public presentation over clip. Tonss are obtained for public presentation and satisfaction with public presentation. The difference between initial and subsequent tonss is a step of result, with a two-point difference in either way bespeaking important alteration. However, respondents should non cognize about their old tonss as this may impact their terminal consequence. They need to rate their public presentation and satisfaction based merely on their current perceptual experiences.
Harmonizing to Canadian Assosiation of Occupational Therapists ( CAOT ) , COPM is designed to be used for assortment of disablements and across all developmental phases. In add-on, COPM is a standardised instrument, with a semi-structured interview format and structured hiting method. Change scores between appraisal and reappraisal utilizing the COPM are the most meaningful tonss derived from this appraisal. The step is easy to administrate, taking 20-40 proceedingss. The COPM works really good as an initial appraisal. COPM has been used in more than 35 states and has been translated into over 20 linguistic communications.
3.2 Statistical analysis
The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences ( SPSS ) version 14.0 will be used to analyze the information. Probabilities of less than 0.05 were accepted as important.