# ICT101 Discrete Mathematics For IT : Essay Fountain

## Question:

Your group will be exploring one Mathematical problem and its uses in the real world. You are to write a report on your findings.

Your group can choose one from the following problems or your group can choose to come up with your own. However, after forming group and deciding on the topic to work on your group must meet their respective tutor to get an approval.

### The problems your group can choose from are:

·Apportionment and cake-cutting
·Lotto and whether it is a good bet to play
·Sorting algorithms
·Travelling salesman problem
·Greedy algorithm and packing problems
·Predator-prey with recurrence relations

### Introduction

The Travelling Salesman Problem (TSP) is all around characterized and know enhancement problem that is applied to locate the shortest route visiting every individual from an accumulation of destinations and restoring the beginning stage4. 2It is once in a while considered as the most serious problem in the computational science however yet no better/viable arrangement technique is known for the general cases. In most cases, the traveling salesman problem looks for an ideal visit by means of a predetermined arrangement of areas1.

Therefore, to solve a specific occasion of the problem, it pursues that we should locate the shortest distance and check that no other or better distances exist. For example, if we consider the graph as below, the traveling salesman problem tour in the graph can be given as (1-2-4-3-1) kilometers while the total cost of the tour is given as 10+25+30+15 which is \$80

The Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP), as we are probably of aware and respect, was first determined in the year1930 in Vienna and Harvard. Richard M. Karp give the idea in 1972 that the Hamiltonian cycle issue was kind of NP complete, which infers the NP-hardness of the Travelling Salesman Problem (TSP). This provided a numerical clarification for the evident computational trouble of getting ideal visits.

The present record for the biggest Traveling Salesman Problem including 85,900 urban areas, was settled in 2006 as clarified in 3. The personal computers utilized forms of the branch-and-bound strategy just as the cutting planes technique (two apparently basic whole number direct programming strategies). The code utilized in these arrangements is called Concorde and is accessible to see for nothing over the web.

In the event that one thinks about each and every city on the planet, and fathom for the most limited Hamiltonian Cycle (ideally utilizing a Personal Computer), at that point one can win distinction, fortune, and a money prize.

### Problem definition

A travelling salesman wishes to go to a specific number of universities to sell items. But the travelling salesman needs to visit each and every university precisely once and return home taking the shortest route as possible with minimum cost possible. Each travel can be represented in a graph as P= (Q, R) where every university, including his house, is a vertex and on the off chance that there is an immediate route that interfaces two unmistakable goals. At that point there is an edge between those two vertices. Here, the Traveling Salesman Problem is unraveled if there exists a shorter defeat that visits every university once and enables the travelling salesman to return home as fast as possible.

The traveling salesman problem issue here can thus be partitioned into two sorts: the issues where there is a route between each pair of particular vertices (where there are no blocks/road blocks) and the ones with roadblocks or barriers. 2This issue in this manner shapes the enthusiasm to the individuals who need to upgrade their courses either by thinking about the cost, separates or even time. For example, on the off chance that one has four individuals in his vehicle to drop off at particular homes, at that point he will naturally endeavor to consider the most limited separation conceivable. In this situation, the separation should be limited. 3What’s more, in the event that one is heading out to various parts of the schools utilizing open methods for transportation, at that point limiting separation probably won’t be the objective to that individual yet rather will take a stab at limiting the expense.

In the underlying case over, every vertex would be an individual’s home and each edge would be the separation between the homes. In the second case, every vertex would be a goal of the school and each edge would be the expense to get starting with one a player in the school then onto the next. 2Hence, the Traveling Salesman Problem streamlines courses.

### Real World Applications of the Traveling Salesman Problem

In spite of the fact that we may not be a traveling salesman, there are different ways one can apply or utilize this information and algorithms. For instance, a businessman might need to drive to twenty universities around the globe yet in the shortest ways that are available to him or her. 4But since the businessman needs to move to all the twenty universities around the world, the person wishes to limit the separations between every one of the university.

### Possible Solution to the Problem

The traveling salesman is sometimes referred to as a famous NP-hard problem and hence is no polynomial time to know the solution to traveling salesman problem. The following are some of the different solutions for the traveling salesman problem that can be considered.

We should consider location 1 as the starting and the ending point of the route/journey. Generate all the (x-1); which is involves getting the permutations of the location. Determining the cost of every permutation and keeping track of the minimum cost permutation. In the event that for each pair of towns, there exists an immediate street between them, at that point the voyage can be spoken to as a total chart.

Since each goal is associated with each other goal we can generally discover a Hamiltonian Path, and besides, we can decide exactly what number of Hamiltonian Paths there are. There are d decisions for the sales rep’s home, and since there is a course interfacing that vertex to each other vertex in the diagram there are (d−1) decisions for the following goal. At that point (d−2) etc. In this way in a named total chart there are d! Hamiltonian Paths in any voyage without barriers.

Hamiltonian Cycles can be thought of as total round changes. We never again stress over picking a home for your voyaging sales rep, for every vertex in the Hamiltonian Cycle will have degree 2. One edge episode with every vertex speaks to touching base at this goal, while the other edge speaks to leaving that goal, in this manner every vertex could be thought of as the sales rep’s home. When we are at a particular vertex we have (d−1) decisions for the following vertex, at that point (d−2), etc. that will result to an average a sum of (d−1)! voyages. Notwithstanding, if there exists a cycle [b → c → … d → e→ f], it will be equivalent to the cycle [b → c → d → … e → f]. Along these lines, it would have been checked twice. Since this will occur with each cycle in the total chart, there are Hamiltonian Cycles in any voyage that can be spoken to as a total diagram.

### Some known Possible Algorithm

Since a globally optimal solution has not been identified, there exist numerous algorithms that provide locally optimal solutions. In this section, we will discuss the three algorithms; that is; nearest-neighbour algorithm, geometric algorithm and the closest insertion algorithm. They are discussed as follows.

1. Nearest-Neighbor Algorithm

This is the sort of avaricious algorithms which suggests that at each phase of the calculation, we take the most ideal edge to utilize4. In different terms, we settle on a locally ideal choice in each progression of the calculation. Something else to consider about the nearest neighbour algorithm is that we have to pick the beginning vertex and on the off chance that we pick distinctive vertices, we may get a different cycle.

Instead of starting at vertex A, let the traveling salesman start at vertex E. Assume a voyager needs to fly on a Southwest Airlines departure from Pittsburgh, PA to Manchester, NH. The explorer will be frustrated to realize that there is definitely not a non-stop flight. Rather, one should initially travel to Baltimore, Maryland so as to in the end achieve their goal. We should think about this probability while looking for courses for the voyaging sales rep. In the event that such conditions emerge, one is never again ensured a Hamiltonian Path nor a Hamiltonian Cycle.

1. Geometric Algorithm

In this geometric algorithm, it is expected that we have a total diagram. Which implies that every vertex is adjoining each other vertex4. By first making the raised body around the majority of the goals, we at that point draw the edges that associate these encompassing vertices. We consider the vertices that are not on the outskirt of the curved structure location. At that point, we take the main area, vertex I and draw the edge from that vertex to each vertex in the frame.

Next, we look at all of the edges focused at vertex I. We at that point locate the biggest of these edges, feature the edges that make that edge at that point to reduce the edge from the curved structure that is never again required. As we wreck the edges that were on the curved frame, we likewise reduce the brief edge from vertex I to alternate vertices. Now, the outskirt contains the vertices (J, H, K, L, M, N, O, and P) and the arrangement of towns in (Y, W, Q, and Z). In the following stage, we draw the majority of the edges from area J to the vertices on the fringe including vertex I. As previously, take a gander at the edges made along these lines, pick biggest one, erase the edge on the fringe, and after that erase the majority of the other impermanent edges that are incident to J.

This processes at that point proceed thusly until there are no more areas left to put in the visit the voyaging sales rep.

• Closest Insertion Algorithm

This algorithm is like the nearest neighbour algorithm in the way that they are both greedy algorithms3. It is outlined with the weighted octahedral diagram P. On the off chance that we pick a vertex A to be our travelling salesman home and take a gander at all of the edges incident with vertex A. We gather these edges in a set P (O), with the end goal that at stage 1, P (O) = {BA, EA, DA, A). We include edge EA with a load of four since it has a minimal load of the considerable number of edges in P (O) and afterward, we move to organize two. In the Nearest-Neighbor Algorithm, and now, we would just take a gander at the edges episode with vertex E, however in the Closest Insertion algorithm, we will take a gander at the edges that are occurring with vertices A and E. In this way, P(O) = {BA, DA, CA, BE,FE and DE).

At that point on the off chance that we consider the edge that has less weight which in this case, is edge CA. Presently, we have two edges in our visit as found in the figure above and we grow the rundown of the edges once more. Yet, when a vertex is an incident with two edges, we will never again consider some other edges occurrence with that vertex since we would prefer not to go to one vertex more than once. 6In any case, in the event that we have two edges occurrence with every vertex, at that point we can think about our traveling salesman heading out to that vertex and afterward far from that vertex.

## Conclusion

From the above-mentioned example, we have seen that for the four colleges visit precedent, the geometric algorithm for the Traveling Salesman Problem created preferable results over the closest neighbor and close inclusion calculations7. This might be valid in a general way yet more research is required

There exist various calculations for the Traveling Salesman Problem including the public computer programs. Along these lines, the scientists have always been endeavoring to enhance that have been around the years. 3Likewise, it is guessed that one can discover an algorithm that will give nearby arrangements which is the most extreme one and a large portion of times’ ideal worldwide arrangement. In this way, regardless of whether individuals travel by stage mentors, prepares or even space dispatches, the Traveling Salesman Problem is material and important today and will keep on being significant and relevant.

### Short statement about contributions/Reflections from each group members

In the event that for each pair of towns, there exists an immediate street between them, at that point the voyage can be spoken to as a total diagram. Since each goal is associated with each other goal we can generally discover a Hamiltonian Path, and moreover, we can decide exactly what number of Hamiltonian Paths there are. There are n decisions for the sales rep’s home, and since there is a course associating that vertex to each other vertex in the chart there are (n−1) decisions for the following goal. At that point (n−2, etc. Along these lines in a marked total diagram there are n! Hamiltonian Paths in any voyage without detours.

Hamiltonian Cycles can be thought of as total roundabout changes. We never again stress over picking a home for your voyaging sales rep, for every vertex in the Hamiltonian Cycle will have degree of two. One edge episode with every vertex speaks to touching base at this goal, while the other edge speaks to leaving that goal, along these lines every vertex could be thought of as the sales rep’s home. When we are at a particular vertex we have (d−1) decisions for the following vertex, at that point (d−2, etc. that will results to a sum of (d−1)! voyages. Be that as it may, if there exists a cycle {c → d → … e → f→ c}, it will be equivalent to the cycle {p → q → r → … z → t}. Consequently, it would have been checked two times. Because this will happen with each end cycle in the total diagram, there exist Hamiltonian cycles in such a way that the travelling salesman can be spoken to as a total chart.

## References

Bartholdi III, John J., and Loren K. Platzman. “An O (N log N) planar traveling salesman heuristic based on space-filling curves.” (2013) 5 Operations Research Letters 41.

Jünger, Michael, Gerhard Reinelt, and Giovanni Rinaldi. “The traveling salesman problem.” (2016) 2 Handbooks in operations research and management science 7.

Laporte, Gilbert, and Silvano Martello. “The selective traveling salesman problem.” (2017) Discrete applied mathematics 26.

Ouattara, Aziz, Belaïd Ahiod, and Xin-She Yang. “Discrete cuckoo search algorithm for the traveling salesman problem. (Cambridge University Press, 2017) 5 “Neural Computing and Applications 24.

Christofides, Nicos. Worst-case analysis of a new heuristic for the traveling salesman problem. No. RR-388. Carnegie-Mellon Univ Pittsburgh Pa Management Sciences Research Group (2015)

Mavrovouniotis, Michalis, and Shengxiang Yang. “Ant colony optimization with immigrants schemes for the dynamic traveling salesman problem with traffic factors” (2013). Applied Soft Computing 13, no. 10.

Escario, Jose B., Juan F. Jimenez, and Jose M. Giron-Sierra. “Ant colony extended: experiments on the traveling salesman problem.” (2015) 5 Expert Systems with Applications 42.

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