II Response: Common Disorder

I need a response to the three different discussion postings. The response should be one or two lines and you can ask a question. 

The 1st response is to the questions asked by the instructor.

The second and 3rd discussion: Read the literature and post a response to the literature.

The 1st response is to my previously submitted assignment below. Instructor inquired:

From the instructor:

Very comprehensive summary on DS.  What is the life expectancy for someone with DS?  I noticed in your description of symptoms, you mentioned tongues that stick out of their mouths.  Their tongues are often very thick which may contribute to it sticking out of their mouths.  They also have short stubby fingers and feet.  What about their cognitive abilities?

My assignment I submitted

Description of the disorder

This is a genetic disorder caused when abnormal cell division results in an extra genetic material. The third copy of chromosome 21 is a presence. The disorder causes physical growth delays. This means that the IQ of a young child with the Down syndrome is 50, which is equivalent to the mental age of an 8 or 9 years old child. However, it varies widely from one child with the disorder to another. (Evans-Martin, F. F. 2009).

It happens that the parents of the affected individuals are typically genetically normal since the extra chromosomes do occur by random chances. The disorder though can be detected before a child is born. Sadly, there is no cure for the Down syndrome disorder.

Causes of the Down syndrome by the field of medicine

It is caused by a problem with the baby’s chromosomes. A healthy person has got 46 chromosomes but in the case of an individual with Down syndrome, they have 47 chromosomes.

For a child to have the Down syndrome disorder, the child gets an extra chromosomes 21. It is this extra genetic material that causes the physical feature and developmental delays which are associated with the Down syndrome.

Causes and symptoms from friends and family members and what the general public concludes.

Causes

They believe that the disorder is a curse from God or rather a punishment that one is punished for his sins. Few believes that it is caused by someone getting pregnant at a late age.They believe that at the age of 35 years and above, one is likely to conceive a baby with the  Down syndrome disorder.( Routh, K. 2004).

Others believe it to be an inheritance from the family members especially if there is a person, (can be a brother or sister) with the same disorder in the family.

Moreover, some believe the disorder to be caused by poor health diet when one was pregnant with the baby.

Symptoms

The following are some of the symptoms of an individual with the Down syndrome disorder. They include having;

a)      Short neck

b)      Small ears

c)      Flat face

d)     Small mouth

e)      Short arms and legs

f)       Shorter in height as children and Adults

g)      Loose joints

h)      A tongue that tends to stick out of the mouth

Conclusion from general public

People with no knowledge of the disorder that it is not inherited but caused by the problem of the chromosomes; do conclude the reasons mentioned earlier of the disorder which might not be the case according to the field of medicine or psychology.

Advice to Alice on preventive actions, Available testing and reproduction options in future.

There is no perfect prevention for the disorder since it is a genetic one. I would, therefore, advise Alice to avoid having another baby with the same problem, to have a test before reproduction to be able to know whether there is a possibility of disorder. Advising her on not having a baby at late age also, will reduce cases of having a child with the disorder. (Woliver, R. 2009).

Screening Test and Diagnostic tests are the commonly used tests to be able to know if one is having a baby with the disorder.

 Screening helps tell a woman whether the pregnancy has lower or higher chance of having the Down syndrome.

Diagnostic tests, on the other hand, can typically detect whether the baby will have Down syndrome or not.

Alice should have reproduction options of not getting a baby at the age past 35 years.Also, she should find out from his family and that of his partner if there is anybody who had the disorder so as to be able to weigh her case of having a child with the disorder of Down syndrome.

References

Evans-Martin, F. F. (2009). Down syndrome. New York: Chelsea House.

Routh, K. (2004). Down syndrome. Chicago, IL: Heinemann Library.

Woliver, R. (2009). Alphabet kids from ADD to Zellweger syndrome: A guide to developmental, neurobiological and psychological disorders for parents and professionals. London: Jessica Kingsley.

2nd discussion  The response should be one or two lines and you can ask a question. 

rs

Your friend Alice tells you that her daughter Lauren has been recently diagnosed with this disorder. Alice would like more details and comes to you for information.

Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder also known as ADHD, is a disorder that can start in early childhood. It can also be diagnosed as an adult even if systems where not present before. This disorder makes everyday tasks or thoughts hard to focus on any one specific thing. Someone with this disorder can show signs of hyperactivity or constant motion and little patience for tasks to be done. Each person is different will have different levels of inattention, hyperactivity, or impulsive control behaviors. It also makes it hard for them to function in any community based setting or at home.

Because ADHD is a disorder that is hard to determine no one knows exactly how it is developed. It could stem from genetics, non-genetics or be environmental. However it can run in families and tests need to be done for diagnosing this disorder.  

ADHD may develop from smoking, drinking, low birth weight or birth complications, lead exposure or toxins, neglect, abuse, or social deprivation, and food additives. However there is no guarantee that these factors actually play a role in this disorder. Hence the word “may”

Ask three friends or family members who are not in the field of medicine or psychology what they know about the cause and symptoms of the disorder. Analyze their replies and discuss what this might imply about how this disorder is known and perceived by the general public.

Having spoken to others about this disorder, they explained that they only know what other people have told them or their doctors tell them about this disorder. I also have a sister that was diagnosed early in school with ADHD, and my step dad was diagnosed later as an adult with ADD. These systems show that what my sister Heather is going through is spot on.

I think that ADHD is a disorder that is an ongoing study that will be done, and that there may even be a possibility that it could lead to any form of absentmindedness, or even Alzheimer’s or dementia (with the involvement of the low attention span factor, and of course this is my opinion and an idea that I just thought of; you never know).  

Alice expresses guilt that she may have caused Lauren’s disorder and is also concerned that it might occur again in future offspring. What would you advise her in terms of preventive actions, available testing, and reproduction options?

My advice to Alice would be that she seek advice from a doctor, do some research on the disorder and that she should also join a support group for people who are suffering from ADHD or that have loved ones who suffer from this disorder.

NIH, (2013). Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (Easy-to-Read), Retrieved from; http://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/publications/attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-easy-to-read/index.shtml  

3rd discussion  The response should be one or two lines and you can ask a question. 

da

AS, or fetal alcohol syndrome is a disability children can be born with if the mother drinks alcohol (wine, beer or liquor) while she is pregnant. The mother risks giving birth to an infant that could have and further develop mental and physical deficiencies for the child’s entire life. 

Friend 1: Kim (age 52) knew what FAS was and felt she would be rather judgemental about it with the mother, even angry because there is no excuse in this day and age with all the information available to not know this could happen. It would also cause a life-long struggle for the mother, she felt, partially due to guilt as well as the strain and stress of raising a child with this syndrome.

I share Kim’s anger that a mother would subject any child to any risk of a birth defect especially one that is so easily avoided.

Friend 2: Elizabeth (age 70) also knew what it was and would be more sympathetic and observed possibly the mother was poorly educated. She said she would feel sorry for the child.

After my initial anger I would also be sympathetic with the mother as well as the child and hope the child could live a “normal” life both for the sake of the child and the parents.

Friend 3: Sandy (72) knew the definition and also would have been concerned for the struggle the child might have to endure as well as the costs and stresses of having a needs child.

Since I am aware of what it takes to care for individuals with needs; costs, time, mental anguish, as well as the problems it can cause in families, I feel sorry for the whole lot!

Alice could definitely be responsible for this unless her child was adopted. And once she discovers she is pregnant again should cease all consumption of alcohol for the duration of the pregnancy. Although there is little information on how much alcohol is too much, it is recommended to just avoid it completely. Alcohol can affect every mother and their child differently and obviously a lady with an alcohol abuse situation needs constant support and monitoring during this period. This might be a good time to attend AA or seek other professional help if the irresistibility of alcohol is too much. FAS can be completely prevented by simply not drinking during the pregnancy.  (Bartoshesky, 2011)

(Bartoshesky, L. MD, MPH. (2011). KidsHealth from Nemours. Retrieve

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