Industrial Pollution

Chapter 1:
I.1 Introduction:
Bangladesh is an upcoming middle earning country. It has a large number of population. The working environment is good and the labor cost is less so there is an opportunity to establish industry in this country. There are many sector of industry in Bangladesh. The people of our country are very hard working.

By the late 1990s, about 1.5 million people, mostly women, were employed in the garments sector as During 2001-2002, export earnings from ready-made garments reached $3,125 million, representing 52 well as Leather products specially Footwear (Shoe manufacturing unit). % of Bangladesh’s total exports. Bangladesh has overtaken India in apparel exports in 2009, its exports stood at 2.66 billion US dollar, ahead of India’s 2.27 billion US dollar. Other industries which have shown very strong growth include the chemical industry, steel industry, mining industry and the paper and pulp industry.
Now a day’s Bangladesh is want to achieve middle class country position. So the country is going to be an industrial country. And the industry who is responsible for the pollution. Most of the industries are not follow the rules of the law.
I.2 Origin of the report:
To know the current situation of the industrial pollution. To know what are the reason behind this. Why the industry through their waste in to the open field? To understand the problem of the pollution.
I.3 Objective of the report:
To know the current situation of pollution problem.
To understand the thinking of the people.
To solve the problem.
To work with the problem.
1.4 Methodology:
Primary data: field survey, Questionnaire.
Secondary data: Web site, News paper.
1.5 Scope of this report:
In this report we want to show the over view of the total pollution of the industry in Bangladesh. There are many industries in Bangladesh. But we will cover some of the industries in Bangladesh such as: Textile industry, Chemical industry, Pharmaceutical industry, Builders industry, Tannery industry,Food industry, Steel industry, Shipping industry, Electronics industry, Fabrics Industry, Plastic Industry, Paper & jut Industry, Refinnering ( Oil, Gas) Industry, Beverages Industry, Recycling Industry, Others.
1.6 Limitation of the report:
Limitation means something that limits a quality or achievement of any analysis. All research designs can be discussed in terms of their relative strengths and limitations. The merits of a particular design are inherently related to the rationale for selecting it as the most appropriate plan for addressing the research problem. One strength of an Selecting and starting to prepare this report it is not an easy process to complete this. To complete this report we face many problems. Those are as follows
i. Information Collection
1) Limited source of information
2) Limited information about the industry pollution in web sites on Bangladesh perspective. 3) Peoples are not aware about the problems by industrial pollution. 4) Business persons try to skip the questions answers.
ii. Overall limitation of this report
1) Limited time to prepare this report.
2) Limited information source.
3) Limited ways to analysis the quality control with founded information. 4) Limited direction from course instructor to prepare this report.
Chapter 2
2.1 Bangladeshi Industries:
A short list of Bangladeshi Industry:
Name of industry
Name of industry
Name of industry
Textile Industry Tannery Industry
Paper & Jute Industry
Chemical Industry
Food Industry
Refinnering Industry
Pharmaceutical Industry
Steel Industry
Beverage Industry
Cigarette Industry
Shipping Industry
Recycling Industry
Builders Industry
Electronics Industry
Fertilizer Industry
Febrics Industry
Plastic Industry
Other Industry
2.2 Pollution in Bangladesh:
Water pollution:
The water pollution situation from Bangladesh could be the largest poisoning in history and the irony is that this situation could be the result of all the efforts in cleaning the water for some of the poorest nations of the world. A British study, shows that about 80 million people from Bangladesh, South Asia, are exposed to a high level of toxicity from the water contaminated with arsenic. An international team of researchers from Chicago, New York and Bangladesh has been monitoring, in the last decade, the water intake of arsenic contaminated wells and the impact of 12,000 people.
The conclusions showed that the death of five people was directly linked to the elevated levels of arsenic in the bodies of the victims of the Bangladesh water. The result is not just a novelty, it is a problem known for some years now and, over time, and residents were advised to dig deeper wells to avoid the potentially contaminated surface water consumption. Now, even the deep waters appear to be problematic.
The Bangladeshi people suffer most in pure drinking water by arsenic. But the people of Bangladesh also suffer by the industry pollution. The river water is not safe for the people. The industry is not use waste management system. So in future if the industry is not following the rules the waste management, the water will not look like water.
Air Pollution:
Air pollution contamination of the atmosphere caused by the discharge, accidental or deliberates of a wide range of toxic substances. Often the amount of the released substance is relatively high in a certain locality, so the harmful effects are more noticeable. The major sources of air pollution are transportation engines, power and heat generation, industrial processes and the burning of solid waste. A new source of air pollution is an increasing ‘hole’ in the ozone layer in the atmosphere above Antarctica, coupled with growing evidence of global ozone depletion.
Air pollution has also long been known to have an adverse effect on human beings, plants, livestock and aquatic ecosystem through acid rain. Recently as in other parts of the world air pollution has received priority among environmental issues in Asia. This problem is acute in dhaka, the capital of Bangladesh and also the hub of commercial activity. The other urban areas like Chittagong, Khulna and BOGRA have much lesser health problem related to air pollution. In urban areas sometimes the houses are built on rocks and soils, which radiate radioactive gas from their basement.
If this gas is inhaled for a long time it may cause lung cancer. In the rural areas of Bangladesh, the air pollution problems have not yet become a point of concern. This is due to fewer motorized vehicles and industries there. Thus, it is likely that in those areas the principal air contaminants are particulate matter and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Basically, there are two major sources of air pollution in Bangladesh industrial emissions and vehicular emissions.
The industrial sources include brick kilns, fertiliser factories, sugar, paper, jute and textile mills, spinning mills, tanneries, garment, bread and biscuit factories, chemical and pharmaceutical industries, cement production and processing factories, metal workshops, and wooden dust from saw mills and dusts from ploughed land, and salt particles from ocean waves near the offshore islands and coastal lands. Noise Pollution: Man-made noise harmful to health or welfare. Transportation vehicles are the worst offenders, with aircraft, railroad stock, trucks, buses, automobiles, and motorcycles all producing excessive noise.
Noise intensity is measured in decibel (dB) units. Subject to 45 dB of noise, the average person cannot sleep. At 120 dB the ear registers pain; hearing damage begins at a much lower level, about 85 dB. In Bangladesh noise pollution (also termed as sound pollution) is a major health hazard. In fact, due to noise pollution millions of people in Bangladesh are exposed to a number of health risks – from deafness to heart attack. On city streets noise pollution can be caused by hydraulic horns of vehicles, microphones and cassette players.
The hydraulic horns used by buses, trucks and scooters in the crowded city streets are dangerous for human being. This is also how noise pollution in Dhaka City is affecting the hearing power of thousands of children every day. The horns especially cause serious damage to children. Experts say, if a child below three years of age hears a horn emitting 100 dB of noise from a close range, he or she might lose his or her hearing power. A child’s health may also be adversely affected by loud sounds from the radio, television, cassette players and microphones, the sound of mills and factories and loud noise.
The unit of sound frequency is hertz. Human beings usually hear 15 to 20 kilohertz (KHz) frequency sound. According to the World Health Organisation (WHO), generally 60 dB sound can make a man deaf temporarily and 100 dB sound can cause complete deafness. But the noise of any busy street in Dhaka has been estimated at 60 to 80 dB, with the sound of vehicles being 95 dB, loud speakers 90 to 100 dB, mills and factories 80 to 90 dB, restaurants and cinema halls 75 to 90 dB, festivals 85 to 90 dB, scooter or motorbike 87 to 92 dB and trucks and buses 92 to 94 dB.
But the desired sound measure is 25 dB in the bedroom, 40 dB in the dining or drawing room, 35-40 dB in the office, 30-40 dB in the class room, 35-40 dB in the library, 20-35 dB in hospital, 40-60 dB in a restaurant and 45 dB in the city at night. When the sound exceeds this limit, there is noise pollution. Noise pollution beyond the limit destroys hearing and might even lead to the losing of one’s mental balance. Noise pollution also causes peevish temperament, affects lungs, hampers the intellect of the children and makes them apathetic towards their studies. 2. 3 Industries wise pollution:
2. 3. 1 Textile Industry pollution: The textile industry in Bangladesh through their waste in to free area. They through their waste in to river and pond. So the water of the river is polluted. The river contains many kind of fish and other kind of animals. If the animals are go to the polluted water they will die or they have the chemical re-action in their body. And then the people eat that fish or the animals that are also suffer with chemical re-action. The textile industry also relies carbon die oxide gas which is cause for green house effect, and the global warming.
It also cause for many human health problem. Some people also suffer skin problem. Textile industry makes very noise. Many people can’t suffer the noise so some time they sense less. Because the textile industry makes very much noise so we should make textile industry in nonresidential area. 2. 3. 2 Chemical industry pollution: We all know about the chemical re-action of the chemical. Many people die every year because of the poison of the drinking water. The chemical industry is also destroying our crops land, river and kills other animals. Many Bangladeshi industries don’t use waste management.
They through their chemical in to the river or open area. The chemical industry polluted our water and air. Causes of chemical pollution the people suffer skin problem and other harmful Degases. 2. 3. 3 Pharmaceutical Industry pollution: The pharmaceutical industry use different types of chemical and plastic pack to keep the medicine safe. But after using the medicine there are no recycle of the plastic pack, so it make pollution. In other hand some of the company don’t follow the waste management program. They through their waste in to the sea and river.
So the water is polluted by the pharmaceutical industry. 2. 3. 4 Cigarette Industry: the cigarette industry is polluted the environment very much. They produce cigarette and biri which is polluted our environment air. The people also suffer the bad effect of the smoking. The tobacco plants destroy the fertility of the land so the crop land became dry. If there are any land who grows tobacco they can’t grow any other crop. The processing of cigarette is also harmful for the environment. It pollutes air. 2. 3. 5 Builders Industry: The Bangladeshi builders industry doesn’t follow the building core.
They make building of their own wish, so it is very difficult to the maintain the pollution. Because they sometime build building on the pond or near the river so in rainy season the water can’t pass to the river and it polluted our roads and houses. 2. 3. 6 Tannery Industry: The tannery industry use deadly chemical to prepare lather. Most of the tannery industry situated in highly populated area so when they through their waste in the water the water will be polluted. The bad effect of the pollution effect the human health it may cause the cancer of skin.
Many labor suffer cancer because of the chemical re-action by the chemical. 2. 3. 7 Food industry: One of the largest industries in Bangladesh is food industry because of the huge rate of the population. The industry is very big. Every day the industry produce many type of the food to fulfill the needs of the food. They use chemical fertilizer to grow mare food because of large needs. The food industry pollute our soil and water. They use high rate of chemical fertilizer so the water of river has been polluted and the water insect and the insect that help the crops die because of chemical fertilizer.
Some food industry through there waste of food in to open area and water so the water is polluting. 2. 3. 8 Fertilizer Industry: There are many fertilizer industries in Bangladesh. They produce fertilizer for our farmer to grow more crops. But the process of the fertilizer is not environmental free. To produce fertilizer they need methane gas. So the air pollution is happening. They need water to cool their machine. So the water is polluting. To make chemical fertilizer they need 2. 4 An overview of tannery industry’s pollution: 2. 4. 1 Present situation of tannery industries pollution:
Now days the tannery industry is playing the most important part for our economy. The products of our tannery are maintaining world class quality. So the buyers of the tannery product are more. There is a good will of Bangladesh tannery industry in the world. The tanneries are a major money-maker for Bangladesh. From June 2011 to July 2012, Bangladesh’s tanneries exported close to $663 million in leather and leather goods—like shoes and handbags—to some 70 countries worldwide, including Italy, Germany, Spain, China, and the United States. Tannery worker have been suffering from severe skin diseases, allergy and chest pain.
Most of the cases, medicines do not work on them anymore. They process animal hides with toxic chemicals. Before tanning they work with chemical-mixed water, liming and de-liming, scrapping off meat and fat. They do it with bare hands chromium, sulfur, manganese, copper compound, lead and others are used to tan which are very toxic for their health. Chemical mixtures, acids and dyes used in the tanneries are very toxic for human health. From different sources about 20,000 tannery workers are forced to work for tanning in this hazardous situation though they are paid a little.
About 90 percent tanneries of the country located at Hazaribagh of the Dhaka city. Covered by high walls which have not proper ventilation system, the air inside the factories is with fumes, heat. Very bad scent is available inside the factories. Few large factories are providing some facilities while smaller s’ are in very bad and poisonous situation. Very bad smells are also got from nearby the Hazaribagh like Rayerbazar, Jhigatola and parts of Dhanmondi. Nobody wants to go to Hazaribagh due bad effect of tanneries. Even the tanneries owner doesn’t live in those areas.
Reused chemicals from the larger factories are being used by the small factories which are more dangerous and vulnerable for the workers as well as for the environment. About 40 heavy metals and acids are used for processing raw hides. Among them the most dangerous chemical substances are , manganese, chromium, sulfur, lead, and copper Wet blue leathers are made using these chemicals Most of the workers are directly use these chemicals each and every day because of being done the process manually. They don’t like to use hand gloves or any other safety items.
About 30 export-oriented factories use these safety equipments for their workers and others don’t pay attention. It is very important to use masks, safety goggles, special suits, gloves and special shoes to save themselves from the hazardous effect of toxic chemicals. Most of the time the workers work with bear feet when thy clean dirt, bloods and chemicals which causes various diseases. Jaundice, nausea and headache are another common sickness among them. These toxic chemicals cause boils, inflammation in hands and legs, skin diseases allergy, and other infection.
If it continues around more than 15 years these can even cause cancer. During working these chemicals evaporate to the air which damages lungs and causes respiratory illness such as asthma and bronchitis through inhalation of the people of Hazaribagh area. This toxic substances damages eyes and the entire nerve system . Finishing leather is processed after tanning. . These toxic chemicals cause boils, inflammation in hands and legs, skin diseases allergy, and other infection. If it continues around more than 15 years these can even cause cancer.
During working these chemicals evaporate to the air which damages lungs and causes respiratory illness such as asthma and bronchitis through inhalation of the people of Hazaribagh area. This toxic substances damages eyes and the entire nerve system . Finishing leather is processed after tanning. . For probably the first time, Bangladesh’s government has leveled pollution-related fines against two leather tanneries in Hazaribagh, a Dhaka neighborhood so polluted with waste from its roughly 150 tanneries that residents and workers are plagued by serious health problems.
This announcement came four months after Human Rights Watch released a report revealing the extent of workers’ and residents’ broken-down health, ranging from painful skin diseases to respiratory illnesses. Shortly before our report launch, a senior official in Bangladesh’s Environment Department told Human Rights Watch, “There is no monitoring and no enforcement in Hazaribagh. ” The two tanneries were fined for not having effluent treatment plants, which would treat their chemical-laced wastewater.
Each day, the area’s tanneries discharge some 21,000 cubic meters of untreated waste containing chromium, lead, and other chemicals and heavy metals into the nearby Buriganga River. The air reeks of chemicals, which have harmed the area’s water and soil and the health of people living nearby. Hazaribagh is home to between 90 and 95 percent of all Bangladesh’s tanneries, and they employ between 8,000 and 12,000 people. “Living beside the tanneries is difficult, all the dirty water comes here, the fumes are very bad,” said Goyenda, who is in her late teens and has lived in Hazaribagh for just over a year. “I have problems with my eyes.
They water a lot and become red. The tannery gas causes this. ” As follow-up to the Toxic Tanneries report, Human Rights Watch has pressed the international leather industry to identify and mitigate the human rights risks from the tanneries in Hazaribagh. Two weeks ago, Human Rights Watch called on buyers at a flagship international leather fair in Bologna to buy leather goods only from Bangladesh tanneries that respect environmental standards and comply with laws that protect the right to health and labor rights. 3. 1 Reason behind the pollution: 3. 1. 1 Corruption: Bangladesh is a corrupted country everything is possible in Bangladesh.
The tannery industry is polluting the environment much. The pollution of tannery is harmful for all the human and animal. But it is a matter of sorrow that the government environment sector is silent. Because they deal with the company owner. And the government employee pays by the owner. So the environment pollution can’t be stopped. 3. 1. 2 Don’t obey the industry’s rules: Most of the tannery doesn’t show respect to the constitution rules. In Bangladesh there are no lacks of rules but in matter of worry that the industry doesn’t want to follow the rules, because of the over greedy of the of the industry owner.
3. 1. 3 Lack of nation’s lover: the greedy owner and the greedy government people Politician are not love their nation. So just thought to maximize their wealth. 3. 1. 4 Lack of monitoring: The monitoring unit are not strong to control the pollution. 3. 2 effect of the pollution: Waste contains pollutants which are discarded materials, process materials or chemicals. Pollution could be caused by all sectors of a society generate waste: industry, agriculture, mining, energy, and these pollutants when they are released beyond the assimilation capacity of the environment.
Industrial wastes are generated from different processes and the amount and toxicity of waste released varies with its own specific industrial processes. Tannery effluents are ranked as the highest pollutants among all industrial wastes. They are especially large contributors of chromium pollution . Chromium is highly toxic and carcinogenic to human beings, animals, plants and the general environment (soil and water sediment). Chrome is the primary threat when ever tanning industry comes in to practice.
Though many treatment options were evaluated to prevent its consequence on the environment, neither of them could achieve to treat or recover chrome 100 %. Treatment options are either; inefficient, complicated, energy demanding, costly or applicable to a certain parts of the world due to technology or skilled man power demand. The river near by the tanneries can be said highly polluted rivers since they are serving as recipient of effluent from the factories. The effect of this scenario is expressed by different indicators. The Akaki -Kaliti and the tributaries of Awash River are best examples of polluted water body.
The residents around the river and /or the tannery reported the death of their cattle, dried up of green plants, water born diseases and bad smell resulted due to the death of micro organisms that in turn caused by depletion of dissolved oxygen. Even though the incidences are merely the result of discharges from tanneries but it is impossible to deny the fact that the discharge from tanneries has its own contribution. (Dagnew and Daniel,2011) Global worming Destroy our safe water resource Destroy your crop land Destroying your human health Cause of chemical re-action

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