Mahogany used in multistory systems in the Philippines, boat and ship building and patternmaking. Logs are used for the manufacture of veneers and for paneling. It is also used as shade for coffee and cacao. Mahogany is regarded as the worlds finest timber for high-class furniture and cabinetwork. Its popularity is especially due to its attractive appearance in combination with ease of working,excellent finishing qualities and dimensional stability. Mahogany is also often used for interior trim suchas paneling, doors and decorative borders.
It is used for boat building, often as a decorative wood for luxury yatch and ocean liners, although it is also used when a medium-weight timber with other goodqualities is required. It is sometimes applied make it particularly suitable for precision woodwork suchas models and patterns, instrument cases, clocks, printer’s block and parts of musical instruments; for these purposes, uniform straight-grained material is used. Other minor uses include burial caskets, woodcarvings, novelties, toys and turnery.
BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Mahogany a large tropical tree with a symmetrical appearance, best-known for its valuableheartwood. The tree is also appreciated as a beautiful and useful street tree. A fast-growing, graceful,straight-trunked, semi-deciduous tree growing to 30-70ft. Most trees, particularly planted street treesgrow to 30-40ft. It looses its leaves just as new leafs sprout, so while deciduous, the tree is not withoutleaves for long. Tiny flowers are followed by 4-5″, woody fruits that burst open to expel the seeds. Mahogany is a valuable hardwood and this tree was once extensively harvested for its wood.
A relatedtree, S. macrophylla, now provides most commercial mahogany. The tree also makes an excellent streettree specimen in warmer climates as is popular for this purpose. Miami, Florida has numerousmahogany trees planted throughout the city for this purpose. The termites are a group of eusocial insects usually classified at the taxonomic rank of order Isoptera (but see also taxonomy below). Along with ants and some bees and wasps which are all placedin the separate order Hymenoptera, termites divide labour among gender lines, produce overlappinggenerations and take care of young collectively.
Termites mostly feed on dead plant material, generallyin the form of wood, leaf litter, soil, or animal dung, and about 10% of the estimated 4,000 species(about 2,600 taxonomically known) are economically significant as pests that can cause seriousstructural damage to buildings, crops or plantation forests. Termites are major detritivores, particularlyin the subtropical and tropical regions, and their recycling of wood and other plant matter is of considerable ecological importance. Their role in bioturbation on the Khorat Plateau is under investigation.
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
Nowadays, people usually choose new innovations (features) to kill termites or any other pests. Pesticides are usually used to kill a particular target pest, many will also kill or harm species that thefarmer or other user is not targeting. For example, pesticides applied to crops might be washed intostreams or lakes and harm fish, beneficial insects, birds, or even find their way into drinking water sources. With this regard topic it includes improvement in human quality of life and lower food costs. Contributed significantly to improving the quality of life and safeguarding the environment.
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
It should be only used and tested in termites.
B. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORKHYPOTHESIS
Mahoganyseed extract Used a stermiticide tokill termites
On Savanna, Termites Are a Force for Good By SINDYA N. BHANOO
Published: June 1, 2010
The African savanna has a cornucopia of majestic creatures — lions, elephants and giraffes amongthem. But behind the scenes, it is the tiny termite that fuels much of this diversity, a new study reports. Researchers studying termites in Kenya’s central highlands found that the abundance of flora andfauna is markedly higher atop termite mounds.
”We noticed these circular green patches,” said Todd Palmer, a co-author of the study and a professorof biology at the University of Florida. ”They had a lot of vegetation and plant material on top of them,and the grass was greener than in other areas. ”The patches were 30 feet in diameter and spaced several hundred feet apart. Dr. Palmer and his colleagues did some digging, and underneath each patch they found millions of termites in subterranean mounds. Quantitatively, they found that plants grow about 60 percent largeron the patches compared with other areas.
The nitrogen content of the plants on the mound is about20 percent higher, and trees on mounds bear 120 percent more fruit. Animal populations also droppedoff significantly the farther they were located from a patch. Termite mounds are rich in nutrients like nitrogen and phosphorus, and termites also help loosen soilto promote water absorption, Dr. Palmer said. Other animals visit the lush patches to eat and end updefecating and urinating there, adding their own nutrients and triggering more plant growth. In the human world, termites are seen as pests for their remarkable ability to eat into dead wood.
Butin the animal kingdom, Dr. Palmer said, this is what makes them so desirable. ”They are basically consuming dead wood and plant materials,” he said. ”In their absence, that would just lie there and there would be no way to break down the organic material and convert it to nitrogenand phosphorus. ”How Termites Live on a Diet of Wood By NNIICCHHOOLLAASSWWAADDEE Published: November 14, 2008 If only wood could be converted tobbiioof f uueellss, there would be no need to wait a million years for thetrees to be buried and become oil. Wood is
indeed convertible to useful chemicals, because termitesdo it every day, causing $1 billion of damage every year in the United States. But to live on a diet of wood is challenging, not least because wood contains so little nitrogen. So how do termites do it? Visual ScienceScientists rely on graphics and other visuals to present their findings to the world. This feature takesraw graphics from various scientific journals and unpacks the stories they tell. The trick lies in a cunning triple symbiosis, a team of Japanese scientists report in Fridays issue of Science.
In the termites gut lives an amoeba-like microbe called a protist, and inside each protist livesome 10,000 members of an obscure bacterium. The microbes in the termites gut are very hard to cultivate outside their termite host and so cannot bestudied in the lab. The Japanese scientists, led by Yuichi Hongoh and Moriya Ohkuma at the RIKENAdvanced Science Institute in Saitama, have cut through this problem. They extracted the protistsbacteria directly from a termites gut, collected enough to analyze their DNA, and then decoded the1,114,206 units of DNA in the bacteriums genome. WEDNESDAY, FEBRUARY 28, 2007
Entomologists discover cellulase genes in termite gutS As scientists search for alternatives to fossil fuel, producing chemical energy from wood fiber has become a big challenge. Several research organisations and biotech companies are trying to discover enzymes that break down cellulose into glucose in an efficient way (earlier post). However, termites have been working this alchemy for millions of years. A University of Florida (UF) study published last month in the journal Gene sheds new light on the mysterious and complex process that enables the insects to eat the cellulose, the main structural component of plant cells.
For people and most animals, cellulose is indigestible, but termites break it down easily into glucose, a form of sugar most organisms need. These sugars can be fermented into bio-products, such as ethanol or bioplastics. The study identifies four genes that produce enzymes responsible for taking cellulose molecules apart in a process called cellulase (picture, click to enlarge) insight that could lead to breakthroughs in energy production and pest control, said Michael Scharf, an assistant research scientist with UF’s entomology department and a co-author of the paper.
The scientists looked at the dominant termite species in the U. S. but they are sure they haven’t identified all the genes involved in producing these enzymes yet. Only one of the genes actually belongs to the insect researchers studied, the eastern subterranean termite. The other three belong to microscopic organisms known as symbionts that live inside the termite’s digestive system: “The termites provide the symbionts with a home, and the symbionts pay the rent by producing enzymes,” says Sharf. Altogether, there may be hundreds of cellulose-digesting enzymes produced by the termites and their tiny tenants, Scharf said.
One potential payoff from the research is that scientists may be able to transfer specific enzyme-producing genes into bacteria, then culture them to produce large quantities of enzymes to make ethanol from wood scraps and other fibrous materials, he said. Known as cellulosic ethanol, this fuel has gained worldwide attention because it doesn’t require edible material such as corn, used in conventional ethanol production. The interaction of multiple genes makes cellulose digestion an efficient process in termites, but scientists want to pin down enzyme combinations that will digest cellulose affordably, Scharf said.
Many genes remain undiscovered, and UF researchers have applied for funding to support a massive effort to identify all cellulose-digesting genes in the eastern subterranean termite and its common symbionts. Greater genetic knowledge could also aid in termite control, an important issue in Florida, which accounts for about one-third of control efforts in the United States, said Phil Koehler, a UF entomology professor and co-author of the paper. By identifying enzymes most crucial to termite digestion, scientists may be able to kill the insects by shutting down selected genes, he said.
Termite-control strategies, such as bait systems or treated lumber, would be environmentally friendly because they would have no effect on organisms that don’t eat cellulose, he said. “Anything we do with this kind of work will reduce the need for conventional pesticides,” Koehler said. Development of enzyme-blocking products could happen but will require attention to termite behavior, said Brian Forschler, an entomology professor at the University of Georgia in Athens. Recent research shows that termites, which live in colonies that can number 1 million, often consume partially digested material excreted by their compatriots, he said.
So it would be important that bait products not disrupt termites’ feeding behavior. If it did, termites might avoid an enzyme-stopping bait and instead share more partially digested food. “You just have to remember that you’re dealing with an entire termite colony,” Forschler said. “This research holds a great deal of promise. ” Further termite genetics research could reveal effective methods of disrupting termite social behavior, perhaps in ways that cause the insects to die, said Faith Oi, an assistant extension scientist with UF’s entomology and nematology department.
“The model for exploiting the termite’s social behavior for control is not new,” said Oi, another co-author of the paper. “In terms of pest control, we can look to this area of science enhancing existing methods. ” Bed Bug Herbal Remedies Work Well With Traps July 15, 2013 THE NEEM TREE (Azadirachta indica), a medicinal mahogany tree (Meliaceae) native to arid broadleaf and scrub forests in Asia (e. g. India), has been used for over 4,000 years in Vedic medicine and has a heavy, durable wood useful for furniture and buildings because it is resistant to termites and fungi.
Nonetheless, despite US EPA registration as a pesticide for crop and home use and a long legacy of neem seed oil use for cosmetics, shampoos, toothpastes and medicines in India, Ohio State University researcher Susan Jones could not find any households near her Columbus, Ohio, home willing to try neem in her bed bug control experiments. “We had no study takers because of the regulatory requirements,” which scared off people, Jones told the Entomological Society of America (ESA) Annual Meeting.
“You have to read page after page to residents about toxicity without being able to talk about the toxicity of alternative products” not as safe as neem. In October 2012, an empty house with bed bugs became available for research when its occupant opted to escape a bad bed bug infestation by leaving the infested home; and inadvertently transferred the infestation to their new home. Jones monitored the empty house by placing in each room four (4)Verifi(TM) CO2 (carbon dioxide) traps and four (4) Climbup(R) Interceptor traps. Visual inspections revealed few bed bugs.
On October 24, 2012, prior to neem treatments, 38 bed bugs were captured in Climbup(R) traps, indicating bed bug infestations only in the master bedroom and bed of the empty house. Eight Verifi(TM) traps captured 48 bed bugs in the dining room, guest room and master bedroom. As part of an IPM (integrated pest management) approach using multiple treatment tools: Electrical sockets were treated with MotherEarth(R) D diatomaceous earth; 3. 67 gal (13. 9 l) at a rate of 1 gal/250 ft2 (3. 9 l/23 m2). Gorilla Tape(R) was used to seal around the doors and exclude bed bug movement from other rooms.
The neem seed oil product, Cirkil (TM) RTU, was sprayed in various places, including on books, backs of picture frames and cardboard boxes. Vials of the insecticide-susceptible Harlan bed bug strain were placed around the house for on-site neem seed oil vapor toxicity assays. Two days after spraying, bed bug mortality from neem seed oil vapors was highest in confined spaces; with 48% mortality in vials placed between the mattress and box spring, versus 28% mortality in open spaces. On Nov. 6, two weeks post-treatment, 123 dead bed bugs were vacuumed up and live bed bugs were detected in a second bedroom.
Bed bug numbers were low because the monitoring traps were doing double duty, also providing population suppression by removing many bed bugs. Herbal oils can also be combined with heat chambers at 50 C (122 F) or carbon dioxide (CO2) fumigation chambers to combat bed bugs. However, heat chambers are expensive, and CO2 fumigation with dry ice can pose handling difficulties and room air circulation issues, Dong-Hwan Choe of the University of California, Riverside, told the Entomological Society of America (ESA).
Herbal essential oils are useful against head lice, and in Choe’s native Korea clove oil from from the leaves and flower buds of clove plants (Syzygium aromaticum) is used in aromatherapy and as a medicine. Clove oil is rich in GRAS (Generally Recognized as Safe) compounds such as eugenol, beta-caryophyllene and methyl salicylate (sometimes called wintergreen oil), which are useful as vapors in control of insects and microbes. In dentistry, clove oil (eugenol) is widely used as an antiseptic and pain reliever.
Clove essential oils work faster in closed spaces or fumigation chambers (e. g. vials, Mason jars) than in open spaces. Essential oils are even slower to kill bed bugs when orally ingested. In experiments at varied temperatures, Choe placed 10 bed bugs in plastic vials with mesh tops. The vials were placed inside 900 ml (1. 9 pint) Mason jars; filter paper treated with essential oils was placed on the underside of the Mason jar tops. Herbal essential oils worked faster at higher temperatures.
For example, methyl salicylate fumigant vapors provided 100% bed bug mortality in 30 hours at 26 C (79 F); 10 hours at 35 C (95 F); and 8 hours at 40 C (104 F). Eugenol vapors produced similar results; there were no synergistic or additive effects from combining eugenol and methyl salicylate. Choe told the ESA that his future trials will include: botanical oil granules; exposing bed bug-infested items to essential oil vapors; and checking for sublethal essential oil effects on parameters such as female bed bug reproduction.
Narinderpal Singh of Rutgers placed bed bugs on cotton fabric squares treated (half left untreated) with synthetic pesticide and herbal essential oil products: 1) Temprid(TM) SC, a mixture of imidacloprid and cyfluthrin (neonicotinoid and pyrethroid insecticides); 2) Ecoraider(TM) (Reneotech, North Bergen, NJ) contains FDA GRAS ingredients labeled as “made from extracts of multiple traditional herbs that have been used in Asia for hundreds of years for therapy and to repel insects;” 3) Demand(R) CS, which contains lambda-cyhalothrin (a pyrethroid insecticide); 4) Bed Bug Patrol(R) (Nature’s Innovation, Buford, FL), a mixture with the active ingredients listed as clove oil, peppermint oil and sodium lauryl sulfate. && Temprid(TM) SC and Demand(R) CS proved best on the cotton fabric test. In arena bioassays with Climbup(R)Interceptor traps, none of the four insecticides were repellent to bed bugs (i. e. repellency was less than 30%). Ecoraider(TM) was equal to Temprid(TM) SC and Demand(R) CS against the tough to kill bed bug eggs. Singh concluded that field tests of Ecoraider(TM) as a biopesticide were warranted.
Changlu Wang of Rutgers told the ESA that travelers might be protected from bed bug bites and bring home fewer bed bugs if protected by essential oil repellents, as well as by more traditional mosquito and tick repellents like DEET, permethrin and picaridin. Repellents are more convenient and less expensive than non-chemical alternatives such as sleeping under bed bug tents and bandaging yourself in a protective suit. Isolongifolenone, an odorless sesquiterpene found in the South American Tauroniro tree (Humiria balsamifera), is among the botanicals being studied, as it can also be synthesized from turpentine oil and is as effective as DEET against mosquito and tick species.
Bed bug arena tests involve putting a band of repellent around a table leg, with a Climbup(R)Interceptor trap below. If the bed bug falls into the trap, it is deemed to have been repelled from the surface above. In actual practice, the bed bug climbs up the surface and goes horizontal onto the treated surface and drops or falls off if the surface is repellent. Isolongifolenone starts losing its repellency after 3 hours; 5%-10% DEET works for about 9 hours. In arena tests with host cues, 25% DEET keeps surfaces repellent to bed bugs for 2 weeks. But isolongifolenone is considered safer, and Wang is testing higher rates in hopes of gettting a full day’s protection. How to Kill Termites: Treatment Options for Homeowners
Don’t let their size fool you, termites are far from harmless. These small white insects feed on untreated wood piles around homes and can even start up a colony within the structure of your home–where wood is abundant. When termites find their way into homes, they can cause serious structural damage that requires costly repairs. If you’re wondering how to kill termites, contacting a professional to address the problem is the best treatment method you can choose to maintain the integrity of your home. There are different methods you can use to kill termites around your home, but remember that your safest option is to contact a professional to treat your home and property.
If you’re waiting for your exterminator to come and inspect your home and you want to be proactive, there are a couple of different treatment options you can try. 1. Boric acid- This white powder is commonly used to kill roaches, but it works with termites as well. You can sprinkle it around the foundation of your home to keep termites from coming in. You’ll need to repeat this treatment every few days for at least two weeks before you notice a decline in the number of termites in your home. 2. Bait blocks-You can also place bait blocks around your home. You can find these in most grocery or hardware stores. These traps contain wood that’s been treated with pesticide.
Once the termites find these traps, they’ll carry the poisoned wood back to the queen. Once the queen dies, the termites will be unable to reproduce. 3. Termiticide- If you know the location of the infestation, you can spray the area with a non-repellant termiticide, or you can sprinkle the area with Bio-Blast. Termites that come into contact with pest control products will infect other termites until that infection reaches the queen. However, it may take up to three months before your termite problem is under control. Home treatments can be less expensive than hiring a professional exterminator, but if you don’t treat the problem properly, termite damage can be costly.
Your safest option is to contact a professional if you have any suspicion that termites are present. Contacting a professional to treat your termite problem as soon as possible can help you prevent much of this damage and save you from costly repairs. If you have a termite problem, contact one of the pest control experts at Landscaper. org to take care of the problem before it becomes worse. Research Article Termiticidal Activity of Parkia biglobosa (Jacq) Benth Seed Extracts on the Termite Coptotermes intermediusSilvestri (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) Bolarinwa Olugbemi Division of Termite Control and Ecology, Termite Research Laboratory, P. M.
B. 656, Akure 340001, Nigeria Received 5 October 2011; Revised 14 November 2011; Accepted 28 November 2011 Academic Editor: Arthur G. Appel Copyright © 2012 Bolarinwa Olugbemi. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Abstract The chemical and mineral composition of raw and boiled seeds of the African locust bean, Parkia biglobosa (Jacq) Benth, was determined while the termiticidal action of the aqueous, alcoholic, and acetone extracts of the bean seeds were investigated.
Variations in the proximate and mineral composition of the raw and boiled seeds were obtained while heavy minerals such as cadmium, cobalt, lead, nickel, and copper had been leached out of the seed during the process of boiling. Extracts from the raw seeds exhibited varying degree of termiticidal activity, while extracts from the boiled seed had no effect on the workers of Coptotermes intermedius Silvestri. Alcoholic extracts were more active than the aqueous and acetone extracts. Termites die within 30?min, 40?min, and 110?min when exposed to concentration of 4?g?mL?1 treatments of alcoholic, aqueous, and acetone extracts, respectively. 1. Introduction Termites cause the most serious damage of all wood-feeding insects.
In addition to timber and wood products, they attack growing trees, leather, rubber, and wool as well as agricultural crops . Significant damage is caused by termites to man-made fabrics, polythene, plastics, metal foils, books, furniture, wooden telephone poles, wooden railway sweepers, and insulators of electric cables . Damage caused by termites to wooden structures in the United States of America is estimated to be over 3 billion Dollars annually, with subterranean termites accounting for at least 80% of these damages . Costs attributable to Coptotermes formosanus in the Hawaiian Islands alone are greater than 60 million Dollars per annum .
Termites are so destructive in that they derive their nutrition from wood and other cellulotic materials. In Africa and elsewhere in the developing countries, there is hardly any data on either the quantum of damage done by termites to agricultural crops, construction timbers, paper, and paper products, or the cost of control or repairing the damage done by these insect pests. The damage done by various termite species in Nigeria  ranged from scavenging on tree barks and dead branches, to eating out grooves in the roots and stems of plants. Past research efforts had focused more on chemical methods of control, with an obvious lack of attention placed on understanding the behavior and history of these termites.
In view of mounting concerns over the side effect caused by the use of these toxic and environmentally unfriendly chemicals, direction of research is now focusing on alternative nontoxic, biological, and environmentally friendly methods of control. These methods include baiting systems, use of asphyxiant gases, application of extreme temperatures, barriers of various types, as well as biological control organisms [3, 5]. Extractives with insecticidal properties from naturally resistant wood and plant species in form of phenolic, terpenoid, and flavonoid compounds, show great promise for prevention of termite attack [6–9]. Some of these substances may also act as feeding deterrent [10–12].
The termite Coptotermes formosanus was found to be attracted and preferentially feed upon the amino acids, glutamic and aspartic acids . These could be used to improve the effectiveness of baiting systems. Many of the chemicals causing attraction and avoidance in several tree species are polar molecules . Investigation has shown that steaming of the heartwood of the Japanese larch, degraded or removed the chemicals responsible for the inhibition of termite attack . A number of tree species such as the Alaska cedar, redwood, and teak  are resistant to termite attack. Neem was found to be a strong repellent to Coptotermes formosanus and was suggested as a barrier tree to protect more vulnerable plants .
The use of high levels of carbon dioxide, for extended period of time has been successfully used to control termites in contained spaces . The application of heated air to kill termites has shown to be successful in laboratory bioassays . Liquid nitrogen has also been shown to be effective in eliminating termites in the laboratory . These temperature-based control methods are showing great promise, but need more field studies on their effectiveness in natural settings. In other studies  Inundation with water was shown to cause a decline in foraging worker population. This could indicate possible applications to control, for example, the controlled flooding of the territories of specific termite colonies to reduce damage by foragers.
Barriers to foraging termites that are being tested include sand, crushed granite, glass splinters, and metal shields. These methods have had mixed successes, thereby pointing to the need for more research in this area . The African locust bean, Parkia biglobosa (Jacq) Benth, is a perennial leguminous tree, found growing wildly in forested and savanna belts in Nigeria. Fermented Parkia seeds are locally used in traditional soup seasoning, medicinal preparations and food additives . In addition, boiled water obtained during fermentation process of P. biglobosa seeds is used in controlling termite infestation at the local level. In spite of this practice, few reports exist on the termiticidal properties of aqueous solution of P. biglobosa seeds.