PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICES OF MANAGEMENT SUBJECT CODE –B-101 PART ONE Multiple Choice Questions with Single Response: Q1. A Plan is a trip laid to capture the ___________________ a. Future b. Past c. Policy d. Procedure Q2. It is the function of employing suitable person for the enterprise: a. Organizing b. Staffing c. Directing d. Controlling Q3. _________________ means “group of activities & employees into departments. ” a. Orientation b. Standardization c. Process d. Departmentation Q4. This theory states that authority is the power that is accepted by others: a.
Acceptance theory b. Competence theory c. Formal authority theory d. Informal authority theory Q5. It means dispersal of decision-making power to the lower levels of the organization: a. Decentralization b. Centralization c. Deispersion d. Delegation Q6. This chart is the basic document of the organizational structure: a. Functional chart b. Posts chart c. Master chart d. Departmental chart Q7. Communications which flow from superiors to subordinates with the help of scalar chain is known as: a. Informal communication b. Downward communication c.
Upward communication d. Oral communication Q8. Needs for belongingness, friendship, love, affection, attention & social acceptance are: a. Physiological needs b. Safety needs c. Ego needs d. Social needs Q9. A management function which ensures “jobs to be filled with the right people, with the right knowledge, skill & attitudes”: a. Staffing defined b. Job analysis c. Manpower planning d. Recruitment Q10. It is a process that enables a person to sort out issues and reach to a decisions affecting their life: a. Selection b. Raining c. Reward d.
Counseling PART TWO Short Notes Type Questions: Q1. Differentiate between ‘Administration’ and ‘Management’. Q2. What were the common drawbacks in classical and Neo classical theories of management? Q3. Write a short note on “Line Organization”. Q4. Write a short note on ‘Acceptance theory’. Answer 2: Classical theories of management relate to the earliest theories of management, that really led to recognition of management as and independent discipline of work and study. These included the ideas of pioneers like Fredrick W. Taylor, Frank Gilbreth.
Max Weber, and Henry Fayol. These theories came into being beginning from late nineteenth century and were considered the core of management theory till about 1930’s. Neo-classical theories of management developed during 1920’s and later. These can be broadly divides in two groups – theories related to human aspects of management, and quantitative management techniques. Each of the theories under classical and neo-classical groups have their own values and limitations. But when we come to the common drawbacks of these theories, i can think of only one.
All these theories concentrated on some limited aspect of management, and treated is as if it is the sole or most important aspect of management. Also, as would be natural to any developing discipline of management. Thus while people like Taylor concentrated too much on physical aspects of work, people connected with Hawthorne Studies, erroneously believed that they have discovered truths about shop-floor practices of workmen till then totally unknown to others, and concluded that the key to management lies only in promoting appropriate group behavior.
Answer 3: Line organization is the most oldest and simplest method of administrative organization. According to this type of organization, the authority flows from top to bottom in a concern. The line of command is carried out from top to bottom. This is the reason for calling this organization as scalar organization which means scalar chain of command is a part and parcel of this type of administrative organization. In this type of organization, the line of command flows on an even basis without any gaps in communication and co- ordination taking place.
Features of Line Organization 1. It is the simplest form of organization. 2. Line of authority flows from top to bottom. 3. Specialized and supportive services do not take place in these organizations. 4. Unified control by the line officers can be maintained since they can independently take decisions in their areas and spheres. This kind of organization always helps in bringing efficiency in communication and bringing stability to a concern. Merits of line Organization: 1. Simplest- It is the most simple and oldest method of administration. 2.
Unity of Command: In these organizations, superioir-subordiante relationship is maintained and scalar chain of command flows from top to bottom. 3. Better Discipline: The control is unified and concentrates on one person and therefore, he can independently make decision of his own. Unified control ensures better discipline. 4. Flexibility: There is a co-ordination between the top most authority and bottom line authority. 5. Prompt decision: Due to the factors of fixed responsibility and unity of command, the officials can take prompt decision. Demerits of Line Organization: 1.
Over reliance: The line executive’s decisions are implemented to the bottom. This results in over-relying on the line officials. 2. Lack of specialization: A line organization flows from a scalar chain from top to bottom and there is no scope for specialized functions. 3. Inadequate communication: The policies and strategies which are framed by the top authority are carried out in the same way. This leaves no scope for communication from the other end. The complaints and suggestions of lower authority are not communicated back to the top authority. So there is one way communications. 4.
Lack of co- ordination: Whatever decisions are taken by the line officials, in certain situations wrong decisions, are carried down and implemented in the same way. Therefore, the degree of effective co-ordination is less. 5. Authority leadership: The line officials have tendency to misuse their authority positions. This leads to autocratic leadership and monopoly in the concern. Answer4: The “acceptance theory” is a philosophy which argues that “authority does not depend as much on ‘persons of authority’ who give orders as on the willingness of those who receive the orders to comply with them. This idea combines both the traditional approach to management of a “top- down” structure where subordinates are to comply with the decisions of management. Yet, it is also embracing a more modern understanding of management, where this compliance is not blind and done without some level of questioning. If one were to buy the “acceptance theory” of management, then one also has to accept that subordinates do possess some level of intrinsic power that requires explanation, articulation, and clear definition of company policies and initiatives.
In the “acceptance theory” model of management, the company’s superiors must have a rapport with their subordinates so that this communication is evident, for their understanding and willingness to accept decisions, comply with policy, and fulfill management vision is essential. To accept “acceptance theory,” management must “accept” the premise that their workers have to be “accepted” as beings with their own sense of autonomy, freedom, and reasonability, as opposed to drones who will blindly follow where the company leads.