NAT160 Natural Science: Nutrition : Essay Fountain


For this assignment, choose one of the two options below to complete.

Option 1: Getting Enough Nutrients

To complete this option, choose 1 person to investigate; either Carol or Marco. Review their case study, then answer the questions that follow below for that person only.

Case Study – Carol

Carol is 32 years old and she weighs 60 kg. The following is a sample of Carol’s typical daily intake:




250 ml (1 cup) of coffee  

5 ml (1 tsp.) sugar

15 ml (1 tbsp.) cream
1 slice of white bread, toasted, with 15 ml (1 tbsp.) jam




120 grams (4 oz.) hamburger, on a white bun

15 ml (1 tbsp.) ketchup

250 ml (1 cup) cream of mushroom soup, canned, made with water
250 ml (1 cup) orange juice, made from frozen




1 blueberry muffin

250 ml (1 cup) coffee

5 ml (1 tsp.) sugar

10 ml (2 tsp.) cream




120 grams (4 oz.) of roasted chicken, dark meat

250 ml (1 cup) of cooked brown rice

125 ml (1/2 cup) cooked broccoli

250 ml (1 cup) orange juice, from frozen


Case Study – Marco

Marco is 28 years old and weighs 75 kg.  He has recorded everything he had to eat and drink for 1 day. The results are shown below:


2 plain pancakes (from a mix)

3 tablespoons (45 ml) maple syrup

½ grapefruit

1 cup (250 ml) 2% milk


1 almond butter sandwich

– 2 slices whole wheat bread
– 2 tbsp (30 ml) almond butter


2 stalks celery


1-355 ml (12 oz.) can of cola


1 brownie square



2 chocolate chip cookies

1 cup (250 ml) 2% milk


4 oz (120 g) broiled haddock

1 cup (250 ml) cream style corn

½ cup (125 ml) peas and carrots, canned

½ cup (125 ml) vanilla ice cream

1-355 ml (12 oz.) can of cola


  1. Find the Dietary Reference Intakes for fibre, iron, calcium, and sodium with reference to the person you choose to investigate (either Carol or Marco).  Then, determine how much of each nutrient Carol or Marco actually consumed by calculating the total amount of fibre, iron, calcium, and sodium, in his/her diet for the given day.  Which nutrients are higher than the recommendations?  Lower than the recommendations?
  1. Determine the total number of servings from each food group that Carol or Marco actually ate for the given day. Compare this to what is recommended in Canada’s Food Guide to Healthy Eating for a woman of Carol’s age or for a man of Marco’s age. Which food groups are in higher amounts than recommended? Which are lower?
  1. What is your overall impression of the diet analysis you performed? Should your character (Carol or Marco) be concerned? Why or why not?What are the possible health consequences if your character continues to follow his/her current eating pattern? Make a few specific recommendations that can simultaneously improve the food groups and the nutrient intake for your character.

Option 2: Supplement Evaluation

To complete this option, you will analyze a bottle of a vitamin/mineral supplement. You can use one you may have at home, or analyze one off the shelf at a drug store or health food store. Note: The product must contain at least 4 different vitamins and/or minerals.  Please provide a the complete (medicinal and non-medicinal) ingredients list and nutrient facts table for the product that you have decided to evaluate.


  1. List the amounts of vitamins and minerals in your supplement and compare these with their Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) values for a person of your age and gender.
  2. List any vitamins or minerals that are at levels equal to their DRI or greaterthan their DRI.
  3. Consider this statement: “People should be just as cautious about using megadoses of vitamins/minerals as they are when taking medications”. Would you recommend caution when using the supplement you have chosen to study? Why or why not?
  • Locate the ingredients list for this supplement.
    1. Name all the ingredients in the product. Define and/or find common names for any unusual ingredients.
    2. Which of these ingredients do you believe are unnecessary nutrients or non-nutrients? Explain why.
    3. Why do you think these have been included with the supplement?
  • Consider some of the claims on the supplement label. Look for terms such as “natural,” “organic,” “chelated,” “no sugar,” “stress” and so on. (6 marks)
    1. List any terms found and explain why you think the manufacturer used them on the label.
    2. To whom would such terms appeal? Why?
    3. Explain how you would verify the reliability of the claims on the supplement label.
  • Would you recommend the use of this supplement? To whom? Justify your answer. (3 marks)
  • Vitamin supplements and oranges are both plentiful sources of vitamin C. Give reasons to explain why an orange might be better for you than taking a vitamin C tablet.


1. Supplement description

  1. Product description

This is a multivitamin tablet for nutritional supplement, which is taken in form of chewing. The supplement information for the patient is attached below;


% of Daily value provided by the supplement


Vitamin A 1300U



Vitamin C 60mg


75 mg/d

Vitamin D 600IU



Vitamin E 15 IU


12 mg/d

Thiamin B1 1.05 mg


1.0 mg/d

Ribofalvin B2


1.1 mg /d

Niacin 13.5 mg


11 mg/d

Vitamin B 6 2mg



Folic Acid 200 mg


320 ug/d

Iron 18 mg



2. Vitamins/minerals equals to the DRI include;

  • Vitamin C 60 mg
  • Vitamin D 600IU
  • Vitamin B 6iron 1 mg

3. Effect of megadoses of vitamins and supplements

Water soluble vitamins don’t cause any major problem to consumers when they are taken in larger doses, due to their mechanism of being flushed out of the body easily through the kidney system. Fat soluble vitamins like vitamin A, D, E and K often possess problems. Too much intake of vitamin A is linked with increased of cancers and other health associated health disease. The deficiency of vitamin D cause hyper calcemia however too much intake can lead to increased calcium in the blood. Further nausea, vomiting and constipation have been observed with vitamin D toxicity. When there is large intake of Vitamin E, it leads to occurrence of stroke and premature death, (Said, 2015).

Water soluble vitamins on the other hand, may not be dangerous however; taking mega doses has shown not to be beneficial. Taking the megadoses of minerals have harmful causes, larger doses are often linked to organ damage and leads to hereditary disease referred to as hemachromatosis and leads to compromise of the heart and the overall neurological health. Higher megadozes for Zinc yields gastritis and affect the blood cholesterol, while too much of potassium causes laxative effect, (Plaut, 2014).

Thus avoiding megadoses is effective in ensuring that nutritional balance is achieved. Supplements that give more than 100% of the daily intake are often problematic, thus making it too large to swallow.

Thus in consuming this supplement caution needs to be undertaken, as it seems the supplements indicated provide nearly all the daily require med nutrient supplement needed by the body can be obtained from the diet and other foods. Thus taking this supplement can lead to megadoses in the body thus cause other harmful effects on the body, (Scartoni et al, 2015).


2. Ingredients in the list

Locating the list of all ingredients

Vitamin A 1300U

  • This is a vitamin A supplement which has powerful antioxidant effect. It plays crucial role in maintaining vision, neurological function and promoting healthy skin. It is effective in reducing and fighting free radical change in the body.  It has various functions from promoting eye health, cancer protective effects, immune system and supporting skin growth.

Vitamin C

  • It is often found in abundance in vegetables and fruits. It helps in prevention of cancers and combating free radicals and neutralizing effects of nitrites in the body. Vitamin c supplements are key in ensuring that there is lessen duration and symptoms of common cold which delay cataracts and help immune function.

Vitamin D

  • Vitamin D is crucial in ensuing that there is prevention of rickets and bone repair. Rich sources of vitamin D include oily fish, red meat, liver and other fortified foods. Vitamin D supplements for adults is often advisable during winter times,

Vitamin E

  • Vitamin E is effective in preventing heart diseases, chest pains and high blood pressure. Benefits of Vitamin include balance of cholesterol in the body, fighting free radicals in the body, repairing damaged skin, hormones balancing,

Vitamin B2

  • It is an anti oxidant which is responsible in ensuring healthy blood cells and boosting energy levels. It can be obtained through healthy diet.


  • It is essential for boosting levels of good HL and lowering the levels of triglycerides. High doses could have significant impact on the liver and lead to gastro intestinal damage.  Hence precaution is required when sourcing for over the counter supplements.

Vitamin B6

  • Vitamin b6 is water soluble vitamin which is present in foods. The generic name for its compounds includes pyridoxine, an alcohol; pyridoxal, an aldehyde; and pyridoxamine, having amino groups and their respective 5’-phosphate esters. Pyridoxal 5’ phosphate (PLP) and pyridoxamine 5’ phosphate.

Folic acid

  • It is essential in ensuring that there is synthesis of DNA/RNA in the body, with rapid cell growth and enhancing brain health. Ii is essentially for women who are pregnant as it enhances cell growth for children.


  • It is an important element in the body with key focus of ensuring that there prevention of blood loss and oxygen is circulated on the body well. Too much intake or supplementation causes iron poisoning which can cause conditions such as hemochromatosis.

(Sebrell & Harris, 2016)

  1. Unnecessary nutrients

– In the supplementary pack shown above, all the above nutrients are geared to boost the overall vitamin supplement of the individual. Hence depending on the status of the person, it would be advisable to offer advice based on the health status of the person.

However Vit D content seems high than the DRI, thus can cause intoxification effects. Further Iron can lead to hemochromatosis for the patient thus initial status needs to be assessed.

  1. Inclusion in the supplement

This supplement have been included in the supplement with the premise that the individuals have low intake of vitamins and they are at risks of all vitamins and minerals, thus the pack offers wide range of vitamins and minerals which offer a boost to the individual micro nutrient status.

3. Supplement claims on the product

Terms listed include

  • Natural flavors added
  • Contains soy

These terms are meant to influence the consumers in thing that what they are buying or consuming is mimicking the natural supplement found and can be used to replace natural occurring vitamins and supplements.

The only way these claims can be verified is through lab testing of the product is to test specific claimed product. Further conducting random test on the supplementation is key in ensuring reliability of the stated compounds.

4. Recommendation of supplement use

Supplement use is effective during pregnancy stage. Pregnant women exhibit various micronutrient needs, which the normal diet may never achieve. Women who are pregnant will always put much on prenatal supplements. Research done has stated that most of the women who are pregnant are given multivitamin supplement in order to promote child health status during pregnancy. Thus this supplement is effective on pregnant women who are facing food insecurity issues as this helps to boost the overall vitamin and mineral content in their doses, (De-Regil et al, 2016).

5. Vitamin C supplementation visavis intake of oranges.

Intake of Vitamin C via food supplemenst is crucial in ensuring that best sources are obtained. Further taking from the natural sources combines with other vitamins which the body can require. Intake through foods ensures that Vitamin C is absorbed in its natural form thus ensuring bio availability. The natural supplementation of Vitamin C limits usage on the ascorbic acid intake, which may bring discomfort causing reactions on certain persons, (Blumberg et al, 2017).

Further studies have shown that oranges possess antioxidants which assist in preventing ageing process and help to fight cancer. This compound cannot be found on the supplements, (Stone, 2017).



Blumberg, J. B., Frei, B. B., Fulgoni, V. L., Weaver, C. M., & Zeisel, S. H. (2017). Impact of frequency of multi-vitamin/multi-mineral supplement intake on nutritional adequacy and nutrient deficiencies in US adults. Nutrients, 9(8), 849.

De-Regil, L. M., Palacios, C., Lombardo, L. K., & Peña-Rosas, J. P. (2016). Vitamin D supplementation for women during pregnancy. Sao Paulo Medical Journal, 134(3), 274-275.

Dietary Reference Intake Report List. Accessed at viewed 14/04/2018

Plaut, G. W. E. (2014). Metabolism of water-soluble vitamins. Metabolism of Vitamins and Trace Elements: Comprehensive Biochemistry, 21, 11.

Said, H. M. (2015). Water-soluble vitamins. In Nutrition for the Primary Care Provider (Vol. 111, pp. 30-37). Karger Publishers.

Scartoni, D., Desideri, I., Giacomelli, I., Di Cataldo, V., Di Brina, L., Mancuso, A., … & Livi, L. (2015). Nutritional supplement based on zinc, prebiotics, probiotics and vitamins to prevent radiation-related gastrointestinal disorders. Anticancer research, 35(10), 5687-5692.

Sebrell, W. H., & Harris, R. S. (Eds.). (2016). The vitamins: chemistry, physiology, pathology. Academic Press.

Stone, I. (2017). The Healing Factor-Vitamin C Against Disease: How to live longer and better (Vol. 2357). BoD–Books on Demand.

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