Natural Science Study Guide

Time Determining the age of the earth: Identify the methods used for determining the age of the earth, what each method reveals, and when It Is appropriate to use each of them. Including: Principles of uniformity, Horizontally, Superimposition and Cross cutting relationships Erosion, Deposits and unconformity Radiometric dating, Carbon 14 Dating & use of the Geomagnetic Timescale Fossils: Define and differentiate between Paleontology and Archaeology Define fossils and identify/describe the different types that are commonly found.
Explain the processes elated to the forming of various types of fossils (e. G. Molds & casts, how Petrified fossils are formed) Geological Time Scale: Eons: Identify the Eons and their associated major events. Eras: Identify the eras and their associated major events. Periods: Identify the various periods, their relationships to each other and the Eras, and their associated major events. Key will be to identify what does/doesn’t belong in each time period. Example 1: “What type of Organism would you NOT expect to see during the Devotion period?
A) insects, B) plants growing on land, C) Jailers fishes, D) Mammals. Example 2: During which Era did the Dinosaurs dominate the land? A) Cenozoic, B) Mesozoic, C) Paleozoic, D) Permian. (Note, why, if included would Jurassic NOT be the correct answer? Think about it… ) Video: How the Earth was Made What evidence did the “Burgess Shale” reveal? What effect did rolling Oxygen levels have on life In the oceans and on land? How were the coal deposits formed? When did the largest extinction of life ( >90%) occur and what do researchers think caused it?

What emerged as the dominant species after this mass extinction? What is the relationship between diamonds and volcanoes? What do researchers believe killed off the dinosaurs? (hint, it’s NOT the same thing that caused the largest extinction! ). What evidence is there to support this hypothesis? What is the “Tombstone Layer? ” What group emerged as the dominant species after the dinosaurs went extinct? Why? What do Glaciers have to do with rock formations in Central Park? From: What Darwin Never Knew Video his start at being a naturalist? How did he develop his idea of “Decent with modification? What was the evidence that he used? What was Darning’s view of “natural selection” and how it worked? What evidence did the “pocket mouse” of Arizona provide when the researchers started examining its genome? What did the “Human Genome” project reveal about our species relative to others, such as chickens, flies, corn, mice and monkeys? What is revealed through the process of embryonic development that supports the theory that we all have a common ancestor? What are Body Plan, switch and boss genes? What do they do? What evidence do we have of their roles and how they work?
How did the researchers investigate them and what did their research reveal? What are the broader implications of these findings? Evolution & Natural Selection: Chapter 21 Define and differentiate between Evolution and Natural Selection. What is natural selection and what role does it play in Evolution? Explain what is meant by “Survival of the fittest” (hint, it doesn’t necessarily mean being the “strongest” or most athletic). Identify, and explain the various sources of genetic variability and the roles they play in evolution. What are “acquired” traits?
How are they acquired and what effect do they have on evolution? What has to happen for advantages genes to be passed on to the next generation? What is the science of Epigenetic revealing about the interaction between the environment and our inherited genes (as well as what we pass on)? Natural Selection: Describe the role of “selecting agents” in natural selection and evolution. Be prepared to provide or identify examples of traits that can be (or have been) selected “For” or “Against. ” **What does the Hardy-Weinberg model represent and how is it used?
For the Null Hypothesis of this model to be correct (I. E. No changes is occurring), a number of conditions MUST be met. Identify the conditions, explain what it would take to violate these conditions, and provide evidence and or examples f what happens in the “real world. ” Does the “real world” fit this model? Why or why not? What are the implications of the Hardy-Weinberg model for Evolution? What evidence do we have that Evolution occurs in small steps. Explain not only the evidence, but how each example provides support for, or ties into the theory of Evolution.

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