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1. In this digital world, cyber risks have become a serious threat. The real problem in dealing with these threats is first to determine which of these threats are real and need real attention. These threats can be deceptive. Large organizations and firms fail to detect them as they look very real and are easy to believe. In order to find solutions to these threats, the security team needs to have a complete understanding of the problem. Additionally, these solutions should be designed before the network and systems have been attacked. Hence, it would require a lot of research work and determining possible vulnerabilities in the future. 
It’s very difficult to determine one solution to protect the data from being attacked. Hence, we need to make a list of all the possible ways a cyber threat can be avoided. As discussed in the textbook, one of the best ways to deal with these attacks is by using the deception method. In this method, a trap also known as the honey pot is created to attract attackers. It’s a very difficult task to design these traps as they need to look real and convincing for the attackers to believe in them. Besides being convincing, they also need to ensure that the real system is safe, and no data is exposed to any kind of threat. 
Once the attackers attack these fake systems, the honey pot should be strong enough to gather all the information about the attack, like the place the attack was made from, the motive behind the attacks and the most important part, whether our systems are strong enough to fight these attacks. Another method described in the book is “separation”. Separation can be done in many ways like Internet
separation wherein few of the systems cannot be accessed through the internet. The other method is physical separation, wherein the servers are not connected to the other systems are kept isolated, otherwise called air-gapping. Additional methods are network separation, where network firewalls are created which are maintained by a central team. 
Apart from the above-mentioned ways, organizations should also include small measures like maintaining password-protected systems which can be accessed only by system administrators. This will create a layer of protection that can only be accessed by a few members of the organization. Additionally, people should be educated too about protecting confidential data by not sharing passwords, connecting to unprotected networks, opening malicious sites, etc. It is also important to maintain regular auditing of software and hardware. This will help in keeping them upgraded to fight any attacks. 
All the above methods are possible ways to protect the system from potential threats. Attackers always look for possible weak spots to get into the systems. Hence, any organization should always be prepared to defend itself from these threats. The security team should always be aware of the new threats which are arising and should be prepared with possible solutions before they occur.

2. In the recent past governments as well as private institutions have been facing losses as a result of network intrusion. As a result most o9rganization have been left with an assignment of deciding on ways of reducing the intrusions. As a matter of fact, there is no single network that can be fully secure from information loss or intrusions. But as technology is advancing deliberate efforts has been put forward to counter the network intrusions making it possible to at least secure the organizations crucial information (Ortiz, Ortega, Díaz & Prieto, 2011). There are several ways which can be used against network intrusions which are cost effective and more so more secure. The following are some of the best ways which can be applied to reduce the network intrusion and save the company from suffering from data loss.
Network mapping, defining architecture and mapping a network is one of the crucial methods that can be used to ensure total security of data.  Through this method an organization can be in a position to define the appropriate security measures against an intrusion in the network. In this method a network is either segmented or flat (Hamisi, Mvungi, Mfinanga & Mwinyiwiwa, 2009). A flat network is easily interfered with while a segmented network is secure and prevents intruders from accessing any information in the network. An understanding of the nature of any network that exists in an organization is the first step in reducing intrusions which leads to loss.
The second method is review of the security policies. While company looks forward to setting more security policies it is also important to keep on revisiting and updating the set policies. In any chance a patch is recognized in the network it should be amended with immediate effect. Through this all the policies to be implemented to counter an intrusion or any patch in the network should be up to date (Hamisi, Mvungi, Mfinanga & Mwinyiwiwa, 2009). Moreover, an organization can implement a multifactor authentication. This is one of the safest ways to protect intrusion in the network system as the authentication is designed such that there are layers of authorizing authentication, there for reducing any chances of intrusion. Finally through the restriction of access an organization is able to ensure that its data is secure and free from any external attack (Ortiz, Ortega, Díaz & Prieto, 2011). In this method every worker is restricted to access only some part of the data in the organization which relates to the role the employee plays in the organization.

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