OBLIGATIONS AND CONTRACTS REVIEWER TITLE I – OBLIGATIONS CHAPTER 1 GENERAL PROVISIONS 1156. An obligation is a juridical necessity to give, to do, or not to do. JURIDICAL NECESSITY – juridical tie; connotes that in case of noncompliance, there will be legal sanctions. – An obligation is nothing more than the duty of a person (obligor) to satisfy a specific demandable claim of another person (obligee) which, if breached, is enforceable in court. – A contract necessarily gives rise to an obligation but an obligation does not always need to have a contract.
KINDS OF OBLIGATION A. From the viewpoint of “sanction” – 1. CIVIL OBLIGATION – that defined in Article 1156; an obligation, if not fulfilled when it becomes due and demandable, may be enforced in court through action; based on law; the sanction is judicial due process 2. NATURAL OBLIGATION – defined in Article 1423; a special kind of obligation which cannot be enforced in court but which authorizes the retention of the voluntary payment or performance made by the debtor; based on equity and natural law. (i. e. hen there is prescription of duty to pay, still, the obligor paid his dues to the obligee – the obligor cannot recover his payment even there is prescription) the sanction is the law, but only conscience had originally motivated the payment. 3. MORAL OBLIGATION – the sanction is conscience or morality, or the law of the church. (Note: If a Catholic promises to hear mass for 10 consecutive Sundays in order to receive P1,000, this obligation becomes a civil one. ) B. From the viewpoint of subject matter – 1. REAL OBLIGATION – the obligation to give 2. PERSONAL OBLIGATION – the obligation to do or not to do (e. . the duty to paint a house, or to refrain from committing a nuisance) C. From the affirmativeness and negativeness of the obligation – 1. POSITIVE OR AFFIRMATIVE OBLIGATION – the obligation to give or to do 2. NEGATIVE OBLIGATION – the obligation not to do (which naturally inludes not to give) D. From the viewpoint of persons obliged – “sanction” – 1. UNILATERAL – where only one of the parties is bound (e. g. Plato owes Socrates P1,000. Plato must pay Socrates. ) 2. BILATERAL – where both parties are bound (e. g. In a contract of sale, the buyer is obliged to deliver) – may be: (b. ) reciprocal (b. 2) non-reciprocal – where performance by one is non-dependent upon performance by the other ELEMENTS OF OBLIGATION a)ACTIVE SUBJECT – (Creditor / Obligee) the person who is demanding the performance of the obligation; b)PASSIVE SUBJECT – (Debtor / Obligor) the one bound to perform the prestation or to fulfill the obligation or duty; c)PRESTATION – (to give, to do, or not to do) object; subject matter of the obligation; conduct required to be observed by the debtor; d)EFFICIENT CAUSE – the JURIDICAL TIE which binds the parties to the obligation; source of the obligation.
PRESTATION (Object) 1. TO GIVE – delivery of a thing to the creditor (in sale, deposit, pledge, donation); 2. TO DO – covers all kinds of works or services (contract for professional services); 3. NOT TO DO – consists of refraining from doing some acts (in following rules and regulations). Requisites of Prestation / Object: 1)licit (if illicit, it is void) 2)possible (if impossible, it is void) 3)determinate or determinable (or else, void) 4)pecuniary value •INJURY – wrongful act or omission which causes loss or harm to another •DAMAGE – result of injury (loss, hurt, harm) 157. Obligation arises from – (1) law; (2) contracts; (3) quasi-contracts; (4) acts or omissions punished by law; (5) quasi-delicts. (1) LAW (Obligation ex lege) – imposed by law itself; must be expressly or impliedly set forth and cannot be presumed – [See Article 1158] (2) CONTRACTS (Obligation ex contractu) – arise from stipulations of the parties: meeting of the minds / formal agreement – must be complied with in good faith because it is the “law” between parties; neither party may nilaterally evade his obligation in the contract, unless: a)contract authorizes it b)other party assents Note: Parties may freely enter into any stipulations, provided they are not contrary to law, morals, good customs, public order or public policy – [See Article 1159] (3) QUASI-CONTRACTS (Obligation ex quasi-contractu) – arise from lawful, voluntary and unilateral acts and which are enforceable to the end that no one shall be unjustly enriched or benefited at the expense of another – 2 kinds: 1.
Negotiorum gestio – unauthorized management; This takes place when a person voluntarily takes charge of another’s abandoned business or property without the owner’s authority 2. Solutio indebiti – undue payment; This takes place when something is received when there is no right to demand it, and it was unduly delivered thru mistake – [See Article 1160] (4) DELICTS (Obligation ex maleficio or ex delicto) – arise from civil liability which is the consequence of a criminal offense – Governing rules: 1.
Pertinent provisions of the RPC and other penal laws subject to Art 2177 Civil Code [Art 100, RPC – Every person criminally liable for a felony is also civilly liable] 2. Chapter 2, Preliminary title, on Human Relations ( Civil Code ) 3. Title 18 of Book IV of the Civil Code – on damages – [See Article 1161] (5) QUASI-DELICTS / TORTS (Obligation ex quasi-delicto or ex quasi-maleficio) – arise from damage caused to another through an act or omission, there being no fault or negligence, but no contractual relation exists between the parties – [See Article 1162] 158. Obligations from law are not presumed. Only those (1) expressly determined in this code or (2) in special laws are demandable, and shall be regulated by the precepts of the law which establishes them; and as to what has not been foreseen, by the provisions of this code. •Unless such obligations are EXPRESSLY provided by law, they are not demandable and enforceable, and cannot be presumed to exist. •The Civil Code can be applicable suppletorily to obligations arising from laws other than the Civil Code itself. Special laws – refer to all other laws not contained in the Civil Code. 1159. Obligations arising from contracts have the force of law between the contracting parties and should be complied with in good faith. CONTRACT – meeting of minds between two persons whereby one binds himself, with respect to the other, to give, to do something or to render some service; governed primarily by the agreement of the contracting parties. VALID CONTRACT – it should not be against the law, contrary to morals, good customs, public order, and public policy. In the eyes of law, a void contract does not exist and no obligation will arise from it. OBLIGATIONS ARISING FROM CONTRACTS – primarily governed by the stipulations, clauses, terms and conditions of their agreements. •If a contract’s prestation is unconscionable (unfair) or unreasonable, even if it does not violate morals, law, etc. , it may not be enforced totally. •Interpretation of contract involves a question of law. COMPLIANCE IN GOOD FAITH – compliance or performance in accordance with the stipulations or terms of the contract or agreement.
FALSIFICATION OF A VALID CONTRACT – only the unauthorized insertions will be disregarded; the original terms and stipulations should be considered valid and subsisting for the partied to fulfill. 1160. Obligations derived from quasi-contracts shall be subject to the provisions of chapter 1, title 17 of this book. QUASI-CONTRACT – juridical relation resulting from lawful, voluntary and unilateral acts by virtue of which, both parties become bound to each other, to the end that no one will be unjustly enriched or benefited at the expense of the other. (See Article 2142) 1)NEGOTIORUM GESTIO – juridical relation which takes place when somebody voluntarily manages the property affairs of another without the knowledge or consent of the latter; owner shall reimburse the gestor for necessary and useful expenses incurred by the latter for the performance of his function as gestor. (2)SOLUTIO INDEBITI – something is received when there is no right to demand it and it was unduly delivered through mistake; obligation to return the thing arises on the part of the recipient. (e. g. If I let a storekeeper change my P500 bill and by error he gives me P560, I have the duty to return the extra P60) 1161.
Civil obligations arising from criminal offenses shall be governed by the penal laws, subject to the provisions of Article 2177, and of the pertinent provisions of Chapter 2, Preliminary in Human Relations, and of Title 18 of this book, regulating damages. Governing rules: 1. Pertinent provisions of the RPC and other penal laws subject to Art 2177 Civil Code [Art 100, RPC – Every person criminally liable for a felony is also civilly liable] 2. Chapter 2, Preliminary title, on Human Relations ( Civil Code ) 3. Title 18 of Book IV of the Civil Code – on damages •Every person criminally liable for a felony is also criminally liable (art. 00, RPC) CRIMINAL LIABILITY INCLUDES: (a)RESTITUTION – restoration of property previously taken away; the thing itself shall be restored, even though it be found in the possession of a third person who has acquired it by lawful means, saving to the latter his action against the proper person who may be liable to him. (b)REPARATION OF THE DAMAGE CAUSED – court determines the amount of damage: price of a thing, sentimental value, etc. (c)INDEMNIFICATION FOR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES – includes damages suffered by the family of the injured party or by a third person by reason of the crime. Effect of acquittal in criminal case: . when acquittal is due to reasonable doubt – no civil liability b. when acquittal is due to exempting circumstances – there is civil liability c. when there is preponderance of evidence – there is civil liability 1162. Obligations derived from quasi-delicts shall be governed by the provisions of chapter 2, title 17 of this book, and by special laws. QUASI-DELICT (culpa aquiliana) – an act or omission by a person which causes damage to another giving rise to an obligation to pay for the damage done, there being fault or negligence but there is no pre-existing contractual relation between parties. (See Article 2176)
REQUISITES: a. omission b. negligence c. damage caused to the plaintiff d. direct relation of omission, being the cause, and the damage, being the effect e. no pre-existing contractual relations between parties Fault or Negligence – consists in the omission of that diligence which is required by the nature of the obligation and corresponds with the circumstances of the person, time, and of the place. BASIS DELICTS QUASI-DELICTS 1. INTENT Criminal/ malicious Negligence 2. INTEREST Affects PUBLIC interest Affects PRIVATE interest 3.
LIABILITY Criminal and civil liabilities Civil liability 4. PURPOSE Purpose – punishment Indemnification 5. COMPROMISE Cannot be comprised Can be compromised 6. GUILT Proved beyond reasonable doubt Preponderance of evidence CHAPTER 2 NATURE AND EFFECT OF OBLIGATIONS 1163. Every person obliged to give something is also obliged to take care of it with the proper diligence of a good father of a family, unless the law or the stipulation of the parties requires another standard of care. Speaks of an obligation to care of a DETERMINATE thing (that is one which is specific; a thing identified by its individuality) which an obligor is supposed to deliver to another. •Reason: the obligor cannot take care of the whole class/genus DUTIES OF DEBTOR: •Preserve or take care of the things due. ? ~DILIGENCE OF A GOOD FATHER – a good father does not abandon his family, he is always ready to provide and protect his family; ordinary care which an average and reasonably prudent man would do. -Defined in the negative in Article 1173 ~ANOTHER STANDARD OF CARE – extraordinary diligence provided in the stipulation of parties. ? ~FACTORS TO BE CONSIDERED – diligence depends on the nature of obligation and corresponds with the circumstances of the person, time, and place. ** Debtor is not liable if his failure to deliver the thing is due to fortuitous events or force majeure… without negligence or fault in his part. •Deliver the fruits of a thing •Deliver the accessions/accessories •Deliver the thing itself •Answer for damages in case of non-fulfillment or breach