Explain the reason why pre-activity health screening is necessary Pre activity health screening is used to highlight health problems that may be aggravated by physical exercise. A fitness instructor can then assess and prescribe the correct fitness plan for the individual. Screening takes place in the form of a questionnaire and physiological measurements. Some health risks looked for by taking part in pre activity health screening are shown by Woolf, May (2006), categorised by risk factor.
The first category is known as ‘primary risk factor’s’ which include high cholesterol and high blood pressure. These problems are related to some of highest risks to health such as heart attack when completing exercise . The ‘Secondary risk factor’s’ that may be aggravated by exercise include obesity that is indicated by a body mass index of over thirty kg/m2 and physical inactivity indicated by a failure to reach the minimum fitness standard required. The last category is ‘non modifiable risks’ that is made up of factors that can not be helped such as age and a family history of heart disease.Someone over the age of fifty is also considered to be a factor in this category. When an individual has completed a health screening questionnaire they may then be asked to take part in further tests in the form of physiological measurements. A persons body mass index may be taken by dividing their weight by height.
This can tell a fitness instructor whether the individual is over weight which would need consideration when an exercise plan was produced.An individuals blood pressure may also be taken as a high reading is considered a high risk factor contributing to coronary heart disease. Another test that may be carried out would be the weight to hip ratio which measures distribution of fat around the body. If the person has more weight around the abdomen it is known as ‘apple shaped’ and is related to a higher risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Completing pre activity health screening is becoming increasingly important for the fitness industry as the need for their services becomes more opular. The evidence shown suggests that health screening has the potential to save lives through diagnosing health problems that may be aggravated by certain physical activity, however a different kind of activity may be appropriate. Although health screening questionnaires are good for highlighting health risks the physiological measurements taken after are vital to further help both the instructor and the individual to diagnose health problems.
(405) Q2) Discuss and analyse Reshma’s results.Your analysis should identify whether or not the results fall into healthy ranges, and discuss the implications of this with a particular focus on the risk of developing cardiovascular disease. Reshma’s PAR questionnaire showed that she answered ‘no’ all the questions, however she admitted to smoking ten cigarettes a day which is putting her at risk of serious health problems and is classed as a ‘primary health risk’ leading to coronary heart disease (Woolf May 2006). A number of physiological measurements were then taken. Reshma had a blood pressure which read 140 over 100 millimetres of mercury.Andy Russel explains that the first reading is systolic pressure which is a contracting heart and diastolic pressure is the heart relaxed. The average reading should be between 100 to 140 over 60 to 90 (mmhg) (The Open University 2008).
A reading over 130 and 85 provides more risk of coronary heart disease in middle aged people . (Vasan et al 2001). Reshma then had her resting heart rate measured at 90 beats per minute. According to Netfit (2009), the average heart beat of a women of 48 years old should be between 74 and 77 and anything over 84 BPM is thought to be poor.Stress is one cause of a rapid heart beat and regular exercise would lower heart rate considerably. Reshma has a body mass index of 30. 5 which is calculated by dividing weight and height.
Marie Toms explains that healthy people have readings between 19 and 24 and that anything over 30 is classed as obese (The Open University 2008). Reshma is putting herself at a higher risk of coronary heart disease and other risks such as cancer. Regular exercise would help Reshma lower her BMI and make her a lot healthier. Reshma’s waist to hip ratio was a reading of 1. 0.As Sharky and Gaskill (2007) suggest, the safe limit for women is between . 75 and .
8 which shows Reshma is in further danger of health problems which could be reduced by regular exercise. Reshma’s body fat percentage is shown at 33%. This reading is taken in 4 measurements with a calliper from the arm and back. According to Family education (2010), the average body fat percentage for a women of between 20 to 50 years old should be between 17 to 27 %. Reshma is clearly over the safe limits of body fat and combined with her other measurements is putting herself at serious risk.The evidence shows that Reshma is at higher risk of cardiovascular disease due to her results. Physical activity can reduce these risks and with regular exercise participation, Reshma would be considerably healthier.
If Reshma stopped smoking she would decrease her chance of health problems even more. (402) Q3) Outline how physical activity could have a positive effect on Reshma’s health. If Reshma began a fitness plan she would see dramatic improvements to not only her physical health but her mental health too.Improvements to the efficiency of the vascular system and metabolic changes would increase better health both physical and mental health by reducing stress. Sharky and Gaskill (2007), describes the Vascular system as having many tasks in the body which include carrying blood with oxygen, hormones and food to the cells of the body. The system can be made more efficient when a person takes part in physical activity by reducing blood clotting in narrow coronary arteries. This is achieved by the arteries being made larger and educing the risk of blockage due to plaque in the heart therefore reducing the risk of heart disease.
A notable change of the system for Reshma would be that of blood pressure being reduced when regular exercise is carried out. Another benefit of physical activity on the system would be that blood volume increases by 10 to 15 percent and in doing this will lower Reshma’s heart rate over time. The metabolic changes to the body when participating in physical activity contribute to many factors in helping Reshma become healthier.Blood lipids including high cholesterol and triglycerides can be a factor of coronary heart disease. Important metabolic changes would be seen with an increase in fat metabolism because exercise burns fat and increases muscle which further helps to reduce fat. The metabolic changes are significant to Reshma as the metabolism of fat would help to lower her body mass index and would further contribute to a lower waist to hip ratio and body fat percentage. Physical activity not only helps physical health but can also improve mental health.
Reshma has high blood pressure due to a busy lifestyle. Hendrix and Hughes(1997) states that regular exercise contributes to good health by lowering diastolic blood pressure and reducing stress. Exercise is also thought to be the best form of stress management because it not only reduces the risk of physiological problems but can also reduce anxiety and depression through its relaxing abilities. These factors would lower Reshma’s blood pressure to an acceptable level. When it comes to Reshma taking part in physical activity the benefits to health are endless.A more efficient vascular system and metabolic changes improve physiological factors in the body and improved mental health reduces the stress leading to a lower blood pressure and a better overall lifestyle. (399) Task 2 Q 1) What legislation governs health and safety in a sport and fitness facility, and how might these relate to this accident.
The main legislation in the sport and fitness sector is the ‘Health and Safety Act Ect 1974’ . This act is known as a Statute Law which means it is provided by parliament and contains a number of acts that relate to all health and safety topics in an industry.The Child Protection at Work in Sport Unit may also be interested in Luke and Fiona’s case. As Heany and Goody (2008) suggest, the Health and Safety Executive governs a lot of the health and safety aspects in the sport and fitness sector through ‘The Health and Safety Act ect 1974’. The act protects the health and safety of people at work but it also provides health and safety for visitors to a facility. An important Factor in the case of Luke and Fiona could be ‘The Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations 1999’ which states that an employer should carry out a risk assessment including risks to people not in his employment.A court may then ask if an appropriate risk assessment was carried out in preventing such injury happening to Fiona.
The Child Protection at Work in Sport Unit, which is part of the ‘National Society for the prevention of cruelty to children’ may show concern because they may ask why Luke took Fiona into the gym in the first place As the sport and fitness sector grows in stature, the ‘Health and Safety Executive’ becomes more important in the guidance it gives in the of running the industry. (252) Task 2 Q2) Discuss whether or not Luke or his 14 year old Fiona would have a case for negligence against the facility.Explain the reason for your answer. Before a verdict of negligence is awarded a court will use the ‘law of tort’ which takes into account many factors. Jane Goody (2008) describes the law of ‘Tort’ as being a French word for a wrong and that the law makes a defendant protect someone from harm and owe a person a duty of care. The court must prove this by showing the defendant owed the person a duty of care, that the duty of care was broken and that the person received injury due to a breach to the duty of care. Negligence is further explored by using other laws such as ‘Occupiers liability’ and the ‘Reasonableness test‘.
These are of much importance in the case of Luke and Fiona When it comes to Luke and Fiona the receptionist does not owe a duty of care because although she let Fiona into the premises, she did not let her into the gym. However the Fitness Instructor did owe Fiona a duty of care because he did not ask for any form of identification. In doing this he broke that duty of care and it could be said, he then breached that duty of care when she was injured. Occupiers liability is the law that gives the occupier of a property or land, the responsibility to make sure such land or property is safe for people to enter.The notable law in the case of Luke and Fiona is that of Occupiers law of 1984 which states that land should be safe even for trespassers. (Jane Goody 2008). Fiona was classed as a trespasser as she entered the gym without permission but the owner still had to make it safe for her as a trespasser.
However, the law then becomes more important in the case of Luke and Fiona because even though the defendant has a duty of care to make a facility safe for all, the law changes if the claimant is a child who should have been under the care of an adult.The court may then say that Luke was being negligent for taking Fiona into the gym and it was his responsibility to look after her especially as she should not have been there in the first place. The reasonableness test takes into account whether a defendant acted in a reasonable way in the circumstance and also takes into account any different behavior by the defendant or the claimant, the size of the risk and whether injury could have been prevented. Special qualifications held by the defendant are also taken into account (Jane Goody 2008)In the case of Luke and Fiona it could be said that the gym instructor was being unreasonable in not asking Fiona for any identification. In other aspects the instructor could have acted in a reasonable way because Fiona fell over and no equipment was involved however the situation would change if Fiona slipped on a wet floor or fell over equipment because it should have been checked and deemed safe by the instructor. The evidence shows that a case of negligence could be successful in many factors but the law of occupiers liability may lead to an unsuccessful claim .The gym instructor broke his duty of care to Fiona by not asking for identification .
Occupiers liability shows that although Fiona was trespassing she had a right to safety, however an award may be reduced or lost because Luke was being negligent in taking Fiona to the gym. 566) .Bibliography 1 & 2) Woolf, May (2006), study topic 3: Minimising the health risks of physical activity in E112 Introduction to Sport, Fitness and Management study guide, Milton Keynes, The Open University. 3) The Open University (2008) E112 Introduction to Sport, Fitness and Management DVD, Milton Keynes, The Open University. ) Vasan et al (2001) ‘Hypertension and Stroke’ in Fitness and Health (6th edn) Sharky and Gaskill (2007), Leeds, Human Kinetics. 5) Netfit (2009) ‘Resting Heart Rate’ (online). Available from: Http://netfit.
co. uk/fitness/test/resting-heart-rate. htm (accessed 17th January 2010). 6) The Open University (2008) E112 Introduction to Sport, Fitness and Management DVD, Milton Keynes, The Open University. 7) Sharky, B. J. and Gaskill, S.
E. (2007) Fitness and Health (6th edn), Leeds, Human Kinetics. 8) Family Education (2009) ‘Fat Percentage Chart’ (online), Available from: Http://life. familyeducation. com/weight/body-image/46748. tml (Accessed 17th January 2010). 9) Sharky, B.
J. and Gaskill, S. E. (2007) Fitness and Health (6th edn), Leeds, Human Kinetics. 10) Hendrix and Hughes (1997) ‘Activity Minimises Stress’ in Sharky and Gaskill (2007) Fitness and Health (6th edn), Leeds, Human Kinetics. 11) Heany and Goody (2008) ‘Physical Activity and Health and Safety’ in E112 Introduction to Sport, Fitness and Management Study Guide, Milton Keynes, The Open University. 12) Goody,M.
(2008) Negligence: ‘Legal Frameworks of Health and Safety’ in Oakley, B. and Rhys, M. (eds) The Sport and Fitness Sector: An Introduction, London, Routledge/Milton Keynes, The Open University.
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