1.     When we do an experiment , we

a.     measure independent variables

b.    produce dependent variables

c.     produce control variables

d.    produce a comparison

e.     hold independent variables constant

2.     The control group in an experiment

a.     fixes the level of a variable across all experimental conditions

b.    is often untreated

c.     receives the same level of the independent variable as the experimental group

d.    refers to the manipulation of the independent variable

3.     In research on the decompression of pregnant rats, the independent variable is __________, a dependent variable is __________, and a control variable is __________.

a.     reduced air pressure; behavioral tests; strain of the rat

b.    body weight; climbing ability; time of day

c.     atmospheric pressure; age of rat; climbing ability

d.    number of decompressions; body weight; home cage

e.     experimental group; control group; test performance

4.     In experiments, independent variables are

a.     the result of careful measurements

b.    extraneous to the experiment and held constant

c.     extraneous to the experiment and allowed to vary randomly

d.    independent of experimenter control

e.     varied by the researcher

5.     Dependent variables are

a.     manipulated by the researcher

b.    potential independent variables that are held constant

c.     measured by the researcher

d.    probable behavioral causes

6.     One reason a valid experiment may produce null results is that

a.     the range of levels in the independent variable was insufficient to show an effect

b.    the dependent variable reflects a broad range of performance

c.     the experiment is conducted in an environment that is too difficult

d.    reactivity occurs in the participants (such as, they adopt the role of “good behavior”)

7.     In experiments, the independent variable should be __________, the dependent variable should be __________, and the control variable should be __________.

a.     controlled; constant; randomized

b.    constant; an effect; causal

c.     free; restricted; elevated

d.    balanced; unconfounded; an effect

e.     manipulated; measured; held constant

8.     An interaction occurs when

a.     an independent variable effects a dependent variable

b.    one independent variable effects a second independent variable

c.     the effect one dependent variable has is not the same at each level of a second dependent variable

d.    the effect one independent variable has is not the same at each level of a second independent variable

9.     The Hawthorne effect is an example of

a.     experimenter bias

b.    reactivity in an experiment

c.     participant observation

d.    unobtrusive outcomes

10.  A variable that inadvertently causes an experimental result is

a.     confounded with the dependent variable

b.    confounded with the independent variable

c.     confounded with the control variables

d.    unlikely to be important in experiments

11.  Construct validity permits one to

a.     generalize

b.    attribute causality

c.     have confidence in constructs

d.    support the hypothesis

12.  A source of construct invalidity is

a.     bias

b.    random error

c.     carry-over effects

d.    counterbalancing

13.  If a study has external validity, one is entitled to

a.     generalize

b.    attribute causality

c.     have confidence in constructs

d.    support the hypothesis

14.  Internal validity allows one to

a.     generalize

b.    attribute causality

c.     have confidence in constructs

d.    support the hypothesis

15.  Which of the following is the most likely to have the greatest internal validity?

a.     Surveys

b.    Case studies

c.     Relational research

d.    Experiments

16.  Test reliability determined by a correlation between scores from the same test taken at two different times is called

a.     test-retest reliability

b.    parallel forms reliability

c.     split-half reliability

d.    predictive reliability

17.  Statistical reliability determines whether results

a.     will occur five percent of the time

b.    occur because of chance

c.     are internally valid

d.    are produced by bias

18.  A major threat to internal validity is

a.     confounding

b.    deviant-case analysis

c.     truncated range

d.    dependent variables

19.  A type of validity that is specifically concerned with being able to make causal statements about relationships between variables is __________ validity.

a.     external

b.    internal

c.     construct

d.    predictive

20.  A replication of research helps to determine __________ validity.

a.     construct

b.    external

c.     internal

d.    predictive

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