A theoretical and practical problem arises – how to develop a thorough communication System at an organization which would allow open and effective interaction with optimal input and loud grant enhanced performance to empower any company to reach its major goals? In spite of the fact that organizational communication research, in general, has been a flourishing field, the examination of a cohesion between the systems view and organizational communication research has been rather limited (Papa et 2008).
Lee and Jabbing (1995, as cited in Papa et al. , 2008) used basic system theory concepts to examine maintenance communication in superannuation’s relationships and Kankakee, Robbie and Evangelic (2005, as cited in Papa et al. , 2008) studied the influence of family system dynamics on managers’ illnesses to relocate.
Ginsberg, Goodly and They’re (2009) call the research ‘disappointing, since scholars have had difficulty to create dynamic systems of communication and often lack the methodological tools needed to analyze complex systems of communication (Ginsberg, Goodly and They’re, 2009). It seems relevant to note that though a number of communication scholars, such as Preference (1970), Hicks (1973), Krebs (1990), Schmidt and Gardner (1 995), Above and Till (1999), cream (2003), Miller (2006), Harris and Nelson (2008), etc. As specified later in this article, have been involved in the system approach or an open system theory with regard to organizational communication, the majority of works do not aim at producing a structural and comprehensive communication system model. Even though some attempts have been made to create and ground a functional, structured system of communication at an organization, practically most of the recent sources where a mention of a communication system could be found strictly refer to CIT systems (or to other fields, such as biology or medical science).
To ground the ultimate necessity of the present investigation, it would be reasonable to suggest a brief overview of scientific sources which has brought to the discovery of a limited number of instances in the organizational communication research which have aimed at suggesting organizational communication structures, in particular, naming them as systems. The survey follows in a chronological order.
Abstract Opening with the discussion of preconditions for an effective organizational communication system development, the article suggests a functional comprehensive communication system model as a tool for supporting effective communication to reach individual and integrated goals at an organization. Research literature results put forward a framework of internal and external forces, impacting upon a communication system at an organization, and produce a unique and grounded, structural and dynamic organizational communication system model, based on the matrix of organizational communication stages.
The article singles out the features of the organizational communication system and the effectiveness criteria determining its internal communication sub-system. It concludes with a consideration of communication system development possibilities to practically secure an effective and functional communication system at an organization. Keywords: communication, model, communication system development. Introduction There is a growing evidence that effective communication is the key for keeping an enterprise, as a system of individuals, working together for objectives, successful and integrated.
In the 21 SST century, charged with challenge and change, an organization needs the ability to respond fast. In order to be aware and effective, organization members need clear, pertinent, and full information. Research suggests that communication is seen of prime importance at any organization today, since securing open interaction with a ere flow of information, managing organizational communication processes, and creating an open and adaptive communication system does bring large-scale organizational benefits (Squall, 2001 ; Cream, 2003; Tourist and Harrier, 2004; Ginsberg et al. 2009). As the study of scientific sources (Gibson and Hodges, 1 986; Schmidt and Gardner, 1 995; Conrad and Poole, 2005; Miller, 2006; Stoner et al. , 2006; Harris and Nelson, 2008; papa et al. , 2008; etc. ) has suggested, a functional system of communication is desired at all organization’s levels not only to guarantee the management of information which 4 Social Sciences / Socializing Nikolas. 2011. Nor. 4 (74) A. Obliterate.
Effective Organizational Communication: in Search of a System France’s (1970) investigation of the organizational decision-making process touches upon the concept of the communication system of an organization but equals it to the process of information exchange between persons, which agrees with a linear model Of communication. Greenback’s (1972) organizational communication system has been among the most structured though it presents a constricted view.
The author combines management techniques of planning and control with the endearments of organizational communication theory as to establish an effective communication system, primarily stressing a coordinative internal communication segment. The model explicates the levels of the communication system and personnel communication activities, and determines the possibilities for a communication system appraisal at an organization. Hicks (1 973), involved in the research of auditing the effectiveness of organizational communication, touches upon the open systems model producing an ‘Ideal Communication Model’.
His analysis, based on a broad supposition that ‘the communication system may be honeymoons with the organization itself, is limited to only two components of a system, namely, adaptation, allowing adjusting to changes in the organization’s environment, and production, concerned with the input/output ratio of the products or services offered by the organization. Schmidt and Gardner (1995) suggest a visual model of system, primarily conceptualizing the variables influencing organizational communication and placing organizational communication within a larger context.
The communication system is characterized by a communication climate and depends upon interpersonal skills and intercrop relations. The model does not specify essential communication parameters. Above and Till (1999) view an organizational communication system as five elements, namely, the environment, employees, relationships and interaction, and the aims of the organization as basic elements of such a system. The perspective reveals neither structural variables nor the processes of communication at an organization.
Jeannine (2008) has developed a model, presented and defended in the framework of an MBA thesis. The theoretical model focuses on the internal sub-system Of organizational communication and attempts to outline the Asia structure of effective communication at an Summary of Organizational Communication Systems Review No. Author Preference (1970) Sphere of Research Organizational decision making Outcome Produced system description 2. Greenberg (1972) 3. Erickson (1973) audit ‘Ideal communication model’ 4. Schmidt and Gardner (1995) Business Model of 5. Above and Till (1999) 6. Jeannine (2008) Management 7. Blackburn et al. (2009) Theoretical system model, empirically tested at X company Two unique systems as practices at a university and a local business company 85 Depiction Communication system equivalent to the process of information exchange between individuals. Communication system as a fundamental structure to help attain high levels of organizational effectiveness. System levels discerned to investigate internal personnel interaction, communication activities outlined to support internal coordinative communication.
Conceptual structure for the appraisal of organizational communication (sub)systems suggested. Based on a systems approach, the model relies on two system components, namely, on adaptation and production. Designed to discover organizational malfunctioning. External environment and internal organizational elements outlined, organizational effectiveness elements singled out. System depends upon communication climate as well as interpersonal skills and intercrop relations. Interrelation of five elements – environment, employees, relationships, interaction, and the aims of the organization – systematized.
Organizational communication system as a management tool; model designed to evaluate the effectiveness of the internal organizational communication parameters. Organizational communication system presented as a practical empowerment of employee-customer feedback. Designed to facilitate effective organizational functioning and improvement. The grounding of the model was provided by the empirical research carried out in one of the largest telecommunications company in Lithuania. Blackburn et al. (2009) present and compare two organizational communication systems: at a university and in a local company.
The systems, or practical employee feedback programs, consist of two agents, internal and external customers, and feedback. In addition to the sources mentioned above, there are a few articles which only mention the ‘organizational communication(s) system’ in their title, but do not specify it in the contents, . G. , Carriages and Sale (2010). It could be summarized (Table 1) that on the conceptual level, the research on the organizational communication system falls short in terms of describing an overall and comprehensive characteristics, and development.
Considering the fact communication research, in general, has provided only remote and incomplete views in the systems field and neither of above-mentioned communication system models could serve research purposes Of contemporary organizations or the present article, the given work makes an effort to bridge the existing gap. This research reviews scientific sources, including Krebs (1 990), Schmidt and Gardner (1995), Above and Till (1 999), Cream (2003), Harris and Nelson (2008), Jeannine (2008), papa et al. 2008), and others, to suggest a complete and overall theoretical model of an organizational communication system. Having singled out an organizational communication system as a research object, the present article brings out the aim to inquire into the creation and delineation of development possibilities of an overall organizational communication system through projecting a consistent, integrated, and unambiguous design of an organizational communication system. The model applies the structure ND functions of communication stages and relies on an authentic classification of communication categories.
This aim is to be achieved by implementing the following tasks: 1) delineating the impacting forces through scientific literature research and meta-analysis, to produce a comprehensive model of an organizational communication system, with the emphasis on its internal section, depicting major sub- systems, agents, and processes, 2) on the basis of theoretical research results, to single out the criteria which condition the effectiveness and development processes of the organizational communication system, minting the investigation to the internal communication segment of the communication system, 3) to point out means to overpass challenges in the successful organizational communication system development. It is important to stress the limitations Of research the article bears. Basically, the paper relies on a view that organizations are dynamic and living entities which act in purposeful ways. They have been put together to accomplish some type of purpose – they are goal oriented (Harris and Nelson, 2008).
Thus, an organization has been viewed in this article from a functionalist perspective which sees a immunization process as a means to get the right information to the right people at the right time (Pace and Fables, 1989, as cited in Shelby, 1993). Organizational functioning is described in terms of an nonproliferation’s-output process. In the research, organizational outputs are personalized in terms Of organizational culture and climate, employee satisfaction, etc. (Church, 1994). Then, the theoretical research has been carried out and the analysis strictly limited to the field of organizational communication. It is not concerned with other fields, where organizational communication systems could be applied. It does not investigate specific aspects of human resource management, or knowledge management, or other fields of social sciences.
The article does not deal with the issues of corporate communication, which is the set of activities involved in managing all internal and external communications aimed at creating favorable starting points with stakeholders on which the company depends (Shelby, 1993; Riel and Bombproof, 2007; Christensen and Cornelius, 2010). Then, the present investigation does not derive from business communication, a traditional interpersonally-focused domain which involves correct teeter style, writing style, grammatical use, and report form as structural components which intend to help a business achieve a fundamental goal – to maximize a shareholder wealth (Locker and Icemaker, 2001; Penrose et al. , 2001 ; Bienville and Tim, 2002).
It also does not stick to managerial or management communication which, viewed as an integration of theory with skills, reflects a strategic choice activity, a process, and managerial roles, and which specifically includes managerial writing, managerial presentations, interpersonal writing and communication, organizational and corporate communication (Sunhat, 991, as cited in Shelby, 1993). Finally, in spite of the fact that companies have been putting their information into the hands of technology, CIT in particular, the article has not been considering any pieces of communication research specifically related to human-machine interaction, any technological systems or CIT systems, information and software systems, and the like. However, it does touch upon the aspect of technology-mediated communication which, for obvious reasons, has been very popular among the researchers recently. In terms of approach, the current research has been based on the following three methodological stances.
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