RES500 Academic Writing And Research Skills : Essay Fountain


Read the following two published papers (available via Saudi Digital Library):

Kakabadse, N.K., Figueira, C., Nicolopoulou, K., Hong Yang, J., Kakabadse, A.P., and Özbilgin, M.F. (2015). Gender diversity and board performance: women’s experiences and perspectives. Human Resource Management, 54(2), pp. 265–281.

Ionascu, M., Ionascu, I., Sacarin, M., & Minu, M. (2018). Women on Boards and Financial Performance: Evidence from a European Emerging Market. Sustainability, 10(5), 1644.


1. Identify the research purpose of the two articles.

2. Explain the research methodology of each article:

          a. The research methodology adopted 

          b. Techniques used to gather data

          c. The findings and conclusions 

3. Can you suggest any recommendation(s) to improve the findings of each article

4. What are the differences between qualitative and quantitative research methods?

5. What are the strengths and weaknesses of each method?




Creating a well-designed research includes the effective incorporation of the specific stages and the usage of required methodologies. This helps a researcher in comprehending his work well and to allow the reader in deciphering the content in the paper. The analysis of the following two papers will majorly focus on the research purpose and the methodologies used in conducting the research.

Discussion: Research Purpose:

The research identifies that though there had been evolutions in the organizational systems and behavior, the representation of women has not been considerable enough in the field of holding board seats. There had been debates and studies regarding the findings indicating the gender issues in the change or shift in performance or firmness level. There are also considerable amounts of studies indicating the flourishment of organization with women in the top management level. The purpose of this research is to analyse the relationship between the gender with the governance of an organization. However, the research also focuses on the effects of women representing the managerial areas, by conducting an empirical research.

Research Methodology:

The research adopted a qualitative mode of survey in investigating the relationship between the gender and the performance in the board level seats. The research groups selected a structured mode of interviewing the selected samples. However, the beginning of the research paper, there has been dedicated in analyzing the existing secondary data which focuses majorly on the theories relating to the value of diversity within a management. These data are mainly quantitative analysis indicating the positive impact of board diversity.

The research includes the sampling of fifty companies who have women directors. The countries chosen were the United Kingdom, United States and Ghana. The purpose of such choice was to eliminate the need of translation, as all these places have English as their language and also to analyse the variable results, if any, in a developed nation as well as in a developing nation.  The organizations selected works under a same organizational regime and structure. The women directors are interviewed and the process followed a chain referral technique as the referral suggests an inner trust and co-ordination. Each interview were on average of sixty minutes.

The analysis of data followed the method of conversation analysis. The interpretations were done on the basis of the textual analysis of provided data and the analysis of the narratives. The findings of data shows that the presence of a minority of women on the board has an insignificant effect on board performance. Yet the chairperson’s role is vital in leading the change for recruiting and evaluating candidates and their commitment to the board with diversity and governance in mind. The research also shows that there had been various reasons including the societal norms, the community beliefs and others in the varying ratio of woman participation in the organization.



The research analyses the narrative which are variable in nature. The interviews, and the narratives have the chances of manipulation and external influences. Thus, in order to eradicate the problems, following can be recommended:

  1. The research can also analyse the organizations having men in the top. This will deliver the researcher a scope to analyse a diverse situation.
  2. The research can also analyse and predict some measures in outperforming volatility as well as risk factor.
  3. The research can shed light on the pay gaps prevalent, if any, in the gender diversity.
  4. The research could have taken into account the societal norms that shapes the basis of gender diversity in workplace.

Research Purpose:

There had been considerable amount of debate regarding the role of women in a corporate organization. Various studies have indicated that due too the gender discrimination, the women do not get enough opportunities of obtaining a vital role in sustainable economic development. The purpose of the research is to examine and analyse the fact that there had been a global general agreement that the role of women in the vital positions of the corporate is an essentiality in the global development.  It takes into concern the prvelant ideas regarding the endogeneity of the gender roles.

Research Methodology:

The research considered the Thomson Financial data base and BSE website for the collection of their data. It undertakes the qualitative approach to produce the contexualised knowledge about the shared beliefs and attitude of the groups analysed.

The research collected its data from a group of 343 firm year observation. In a European market that which are lagging behind in both corporate and governing qualities. It collected its data from BSE websites for the required financial data. They also performed cross checking for ensuring the accuracy. The research uses accounting based as well as market based variables to examine both the theoretical and the perception of the market participants. They also took into account the assets present as an indicator of the growth. They formed two hypothesis on the basis of performance and diversification and inferred the result by examining the hypothesis.

The result shows that there is a proportional association of performance in the firm with the gender diversity. Since losses can be interpreted as a mutilation factor, the result recommend that the listed companies do benefit from the gender diversity which could balance the social cohesion and the financial instability.


The study is a comprehensive one and evolves into a perfect empirical research. However, it can be recommended that the research could have also undertaken the tools of questionnaire and interview to generate a compact idea on the prevalent ideas and could have also analysed the reason of the variable numbers in women participation in different firms.

A good research clearly states the kind of data analysed. While a qualitative data are used with the aim of analyzing contextual knowledge and examine the social structure of the specific group of people, quantitative mode is used to generate a cause for the occurrence of a phenomenon. This is largely controllable as it makes use of a representative sample. Qualitative date is more interpretive than experimental. The two researches analysed above make use of the qualitative method of data analysis.

The strength of the qualitative mode of data analysis includes:  

Capable of giving rich information

Insights into individual case

Local contents can be analysed.

Allows flexibility in the process of research

Allows to collect data in a natural setting.

Has several options to direct the research

The weakness of Qualitative approach includes

Time consuming

Interpretation can be biased as it considers largely the perspective of the researcher.

Samples can be few and can be subjected to manipulation and other external influences.

The strengths of quantitative data are:

1 useful in obtaining data that needs quantitative predictions

  1. results are independent in nature
  2. eliminates the influences of variables
  3. can be helpful in analyzing a large group of people.

The weaknesses of Quantitative data are:

  1. Might not reflect the local contents
  2. Inferences can be abstract and general


Ali, M., Ng, Y. L., & Kulik, C. T. (2014). Board age and gender diversity: A test of competing linear and curSchwab, A., Werbel, J. D., Hofmann, H., & Henriques, P. L. (2016).

Choy, L. T. (2014). The strengths and weaknesses of research methodology: Comparison and complimentary between qualitative and quantitative approaches. IOSR Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 19(4), 99-104.

Hunt, V., Layton, D., & Prince, S. (2015). Diversity matters. McKinsey & Company, 1, 15-29.

Kakabadse, N. K., Figueira, C., Nicolopoulou, K., Hong Yang, J., Kakabadse, A. P., & Özbilgin, M. F. (2015). Gender diversity and board performance: Women’s experiences and perspectives. Human Resource Management, 54(2), 265-281.

 Managerial gender diversity and firm performance: An integration of different theoretical perspectives. Group & Organization Management, 41(1), 5-31.vilinear predictions. Journal of Business Ethics, 125(3), 497-512.

Pathak, V., Jena, B., & Kalra, S. (2013). Qualitative research. Perspectives in clinical research, 4(3).

Perrault, E. (2015). Why does board gender diversity matter and how do we get there? The role of shareholder activism in deinstitutionalizing old boys’ networks. Journal of Business Ethics, 128(1), 149-165.

Seierstad, C., Warner-Søderholm, G., Torchia, M., & Huse, M. (2017). Increasing the number of women on boards: The role of actors and processes. Journal of Business Ethics, 141(2), 289-315.

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