Chapter I INTRODUCTION Background of the Study Resource mobilization strategy is anchored on the premise that the financing of education is not the exclusive responsibility of the state but the burden ought to be shared among the stakeholders (parents, alumni, private sector employers, philanthropic institutions and individuals, communities and external donors). Research studies have demonstrated that the private benefits of education sector exceed the social benefits and therefore this broad burden sharing is justifiable on grounds of equity and human capital formation (http://www. iba. edu. k/News/Resource_mobilization_strategy_R150510. pdf, Retrieved: September 19, 2012). In global perspective, resource constraints continue to hamper progress in a large number of developing countries, which do not have the financial or technical means to extend quality basic education to every child in the country. The increasing youth population in low-income countries, the global financial crisis, the impact of climate change and commodity speculation also further exacerbate these challenges and put enormous pressure on governments to fulfill the basic needs and services to their people. Resource Mobilization: Global partnership for education,2012 ). In the Philippines, corruption leads to poor allocation of resources. Teachers are underpaid and treated poorly. In 2005, the Philippine government spent just $138 per student, compared to $852 in Thailand, another developing country in Southeast Asia. But graft and corruption are not the only issues. Poverty is a vicious cycle that traps generations of families (http://EzineArticles. com/3147673 Retrieved, October12, 2012). The Philippine Constitution has mandated the government to allocate the highest proportion of its budget to education.
However, the Philippines still has one of the lowest budget allocations to education among the ASEAN countries (http://expo. edu. ph/education/issue. htm Retrieved, October 12, 2012). The DepEd budget was increased by 15 percent from P207 billion in 2011 to P238. 8 billion in 2012, which is being utilized to address the basic education input gaps, among others. The educational policy of the country gives principals the authority to: manage the school’s funds for maintenance and other operating expenses; raise additional funds for the school through Parent-Teachers and Community Associations.
The Decentralization Programme is being implemented by transferring substantive decision-making powers to the school level(R. A. 9155) so that school heads will be empowered to find solutions to address basic education input gaps, hence the competence of school heads to mobilize resources is a key factor for the schools to achieve its goals. It is in this context that researchers (Ph. D. – Educational Management students at Davao del Norte State College, Panabo City) were interested to explore the resource mobilization practices of school heads in basic education schools in the divisions of Comval, Panabo, and Tagum City.
This is an attempt to remedy financial problems in basic education by describing and evaluating the patterns of resource mobilization practices of school heads. The results of this investigation will definitely improve the resource mobilization practices of school heads likewise will improve school performance. The Purpose Statement The purpose of this case study is to explore the resource mobilization practices of heads in basic education in the three divisions of schools in Davao Region.
The aim was to assemble details to explore the challenges, the ways to overcome it, and the opportunities of resource mobilization as perceived by members of the school system. Research Questions The study was principally directed to explore the central research question about the resource mobilization practices of heads of basic education schools. This generated several sub-questions to further clarify the direction of the study, as follows: 1. What are the challenges in these resource mobilization practices of your school? 2. How do you overcome the challenges in these resource mobilization practices of your school? . What are the opportunities in these resource mobilization practices of your school? Significance of the Study The result of this study would benefit the Department of Education, school administrators, members of the academic community, the researchers and resource mobilization actors. Department of Education. This study is important for this will give the Department of Education (DepEd) significant facts and information about the extent of the resource mobilization practices by the school administrators in Basic Education that would precisely lead to making better steps to improve the system.
This will be the basis in sponsoring programs, seminars, trainings and workshop for administrators or principals concerning financial management. School Administrator. This will provide data on the challenges or difficulties in the resource mobilization practices in their school, thus, making them as the basis in the formulation of their programs as administrators. Teachers and Stakeholders. This will shed light as to how effective are the resource mobilization practices as perceived by the school community.
Further, this will picture out the effects of resource mobilization practices to the work climate of the teachers in learning institutions. Finally, this will be the springboard for further study related to this research problem. Scope and Delimitation This study centered on the qualitative aspect of the resource mobilization practices of heads of basic education schools in the three divisions (namely Comval, Tagum City, and Panabo City). There were twelve (19) respondents composed of principals and teachers.
This encompassed the challenges, ways to overcome them and the opportunities of resource mobilization as perceived by the members of the school system. Definition of Terms In order to have a deeper understanding of the terms used in this study, the following terms were defined operationally: Resource Mobilization. This refers to the competence of school heads to carry out the financial management of the school, utilize available resources and generate resources from various sources to effectively and efficiently achieve its educational goals and objectives.
Social Movements. This refers to a group of people with a common ideology who try together to achieve certain general goals. Basic Education. This refers to learning outcomes, i. e. knowledge and skills acquisition and application, positive attitudes formation, internalization and exhibition of values for a variety of life – and work-enhancing purposes and for the good that is inherent in knowledge itself. One of the purposes of basic education is to meet basic needs and to facilitate and enhance the exercise of basic rights. School Heads.
These refer to the most prominent or important member of any organized body; the chief; the leader; as, the head of a school, and the like. – the educator who has executive authority for a school; Grants. These refer to an award of financial assistance in the form of money by the government to an eligible grantee with no expectation that the funds will be paid back. The term does not include technical assistance which provides services instead of money, or other assistance in the form of revenue sharing, loans, loan guarantees, interest subsidies, insurance, or direct appropriations Resources.
These refer to the term used to refer to revenues, gross borrowings and free or unencumbered cash balances. Parent-Teacher Association. This refers to an organization of local groups of teachers and the parents of their pupils that works for the improvement of the schools and the benefit of the pupils. Fund Raising. This refer to the process of soliciting and gathering voluntary contributions as money or other resources, by requesting donations from individuals, businesses, charitable foundations, or governmental agencies. Funds. These refer to the sum of money set aside and earmarked for a specified purpose.
Personal Services (PS). These refer to the accounts which include basic pay, all authorized allowances, bonus, cash gifts, incentives and other personnel benefits of officials and employees of the government. Maintenance and Other Operating Expenses (MOOE). This refer to the accounts which include expenses necessary for the regular operations of an agency like, among others, traveling expenses, training and seminar expenses, water, electricity, supplies expense, maintenance of property, plant and equipment, and other maintenance and operating expenses.
Financial Expenses (FE). These refer to the accounts which include bank charges, interest expense, commitment charges, documentary stamp expense and other financial charges. These also include losses incurred relative to foreign exchange transactions and debt service subsidy to GOCCs. School Trust Fund. This refers to a fund comprised of a variety of assets intended to provide benefits to an individual or organization.
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