Scientific Research Scientific Research is method based on collecting, analyzing, and interpreting data within a framework. It is Information based on empirical, based on observation or measurement of relevant information or free from bias or emotions and objectivity. All aspects of the investigation are described in sufficient detail, so that the study can be repeated by anyone. Scientific research focuses on solving problems and pursues a step by step logical, organized, and rigorous method to identify the problems, gather data analyze them and draw valid conclusion. Scientific method is techniques or procedures used to analyze empirical evidence in an attempt to confirm of disprove prior concepts” Empirical means something is verifiable by observation, experimentation, or experience. Characteristics of Scientific Research 1. Purposive ness 2. Rigor 3. Testability 4. Replicability 5. Precision and Confidence 6. Objectivity 7. Generalizability 8. Parsimony Purposive ness research start with a definite aim and purpose. Example: The focus is on increasing the commitment of employees to the organization, as this will beneficial in many ways.
Less absentees, increased performance level. Rigorous research involves a good theoretical base and a carefully thought out methodology. For example: The manager of a company ask 10-12 employees to indicate what would their level of commitment. If he solely reaches on conclusion how employee commitment can be increased. Its unscientific method. Testability: Formulation of hypothesis and its testability. To test logically developed hypothesis to see whether or not the data support the hypotheses developed after the careful study of the problem situation.
For Example: Taking the previous example, the manager or researcher develop certain hypothesis on how employment commitment can be enhanced, then these can be tested by applying certain statistical tests to the data collected for the purpose. Replicability: Repetition of results. If similar finding emerge on the basis of data collected by other organizations employing the same method. To put t differently, the results of test hypotheses should be supported again and yet the same type of research is repeated in similar circumstances. Precision and Confidence
Precision: It refers to the closeness of the findings to “reality” based on a sample. It reflects the degree of accuracy of the results on the basis of the sample, to what really exists in the universe. Confidence: Probability that our estimations are correct. Confidently claim that 95% of the time our results would be true. Objectivity: The conclusion drawn through the interpretation of the results of data analysis should be objective; it should be based on the facts of the findings derived from the actual data and not on our own subjective or emotional values.
Generalizability: It refers to the scope of applicability of the research findings in one organizational setting to others. Parsimony: Simplicity in explaining phenomena or problems that occur, and in generating solutions for the problems, it is always proffered to complex research frameworks that considered an unmanageable number of factors. The Hypothetico- Deductive Method 1. Observation 2. Preliminary information gathering 3. Theory formulation 4. Hypothesizing 5. Scientific data collection 6. Data analysis 7. Deduction
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