The Formation and Development of the Fujian Tulou

Tulou is alone among all ancient residential architecture because of its alone signifier, expansive graduated table, abundant cultural connotation. More and more domestic and foreign bookmen are analyzing Tulou particularly after Tulou became World Cultural Heritage in 2008. Most surveys focused on Tulou artistic value and cultural value.
However, this article tries to construe the development of traditional homes from another facet. First, this paper introduces the basic information of Tulou: clip of Tulou visual aspect, the architectural image of Tulou, and grounds behind the signifier. Second, research in different periods of Chinese historical background including political relations, policies, and large events. Try to happen out how these factors influence the formation of the Hakka civilization and Tulou edifice. Tulou, as Chinese traditional local-style homes, foremost appeared in the 11th century along with Hakka people migrating to Fujian state. The architectural manner and Hakka civilization reached extremum in the terminal of the nineteenth century, so started to worsen in the twentieth century. After 2008, Tulou began to reconstruct verve with a roar in the touristry industry in Fujian. During this whole period, China besides suffered several different historical alterations: the terminal of the Qing Dynasty, the Republic of China epoch, the World War II period, the civil war epoch, the 10 old ages of the Great Cultural Revolution in China, the new period of reform and opening-up. So in this essay, I will research:

Whether the formation and development of Tulou are associated with these historical backgrounds?
How did these political relations and policies affect Tulou development on the architectural and cultural degree?
By roll using and forming elaborate charts and information which could explicate each large historical events clearly, I could utilize them as my research tools to analyze and come to my ain decisions.

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Third, the authorities have formulated a series of Tulou protection and renovation policies after it became World Cultural Heritage. The purpose of policies is to recognize the protection and renovation of Tulou by developing the cultural touristry industry. Taking Er’yi Tulou for illustration, I will be detailed explicate what alterations happened to it because of these protection policies.
Cardinal words: Tulou, World Cultural Heritage, Traditional homes, Politics, Policy
1.1 Background and Motive
Fujian Tulou is the alone local-style home house. It has been hailed as an alone big rammed earth home in the universe. Tulou caused the roar of academic treatment particularly after it became World Cultural Heritage Heritage. Tulou is deserving of researching non merely because of its alone signifier, particularly layout among mountains but besides because it represents the civilization of the Hakka people. Now research on aesthetic value and architectural value has been already really deep. In the same clip, China has ne’er been a state deficiency of history. Since the visual aspect of Tulou until now, China has experienced vagaries of historical events and wholly different manners of policies such as the National Protection Movement, Warlords Wars, World War II, Great Leap Forward, Great Cultural Revolution, the reform and opening-up policy… All these policies and events have a great influence on our state. So what I want to analyze is that how these historical events and policies could influent the development of traditional homes and are at that place any particular marks left on all these homes belonged to history. In the same clip, more and more heritages became World Cultural Heritage in China. In the facet of touristry development and heritage protection, the heritage touristry industry could be a chief manner to protect cultural heritage, set up regional ecology and cultural environment, advance the local economic system. I choose Fujian Tulou, local homes as the object of the survey chiefly sing the particular dependant relationship between the Tulou edifice and the Hakka people. Try to explicate the procedure of Tulou development harmonizing to historical events and policies so find a manner that could fit Tulou touristry development and sustainable development.
1.2 Research End
The intent of this paper is to analyze the relationship between different policies of China, the historical background of China, and the whole procedure of Tulou development as a typical local home house. Discuss are at that place any other factors could hold an important impact on the signifier and the destiny of heritage edifices except design itself. Even in the procedure of heritage protection and renovation, which factors have the most influence. On the one manus so far domestic research of historical heritage protection and renovation chiefly concentrate on celebrated traditional brooding edifice such as Beijing Hutong, quadrangle courtyard… So I choose Fujian Tulou as my object of the survey in order to rich historical relics empirical instances. On the other manus, research of Tulou chiefly focuses on the construction, the local civilization of Tulou. There are few research documents of Tulou edifices on policy, political relations, historical background facets. The tourism industry of historical heritage could be a manner to protect and redevelop the Tulou edifice. So this subject could besides rich the content of Tulou research.
1.3Literature Reappraisal
This thesis is written utilizing three series of research tools. The first series is about the modern history of China and Chinese architecture history. These books include ‘From the opium war to the may 4th motion’ by Hu Sheng which elaborates on the full development of China in that period. ‘Modern History of China’ by Lin Zengping which I used particularly for composing chapter two about large events happened during that epoch. ‘the turbulent times’ by Wang Nianyi which I used for chapter three to explicate the influence of the Great Cultural Revolution. ‘Chinese Architecture History’ by Liang Sicheng which helps me better understand traditional homes.
The 2nd series of books are all that about Tulou. The book I used particularly for debut and chapter two was’Fujian Tulou’by Huang Hanmin which introduced history of Fujian Tulou in the item.’ The Living Style Chang of Eryi Tower in Hua’an Country’ by Yang Lin was besides used for an instance survey of Tulou protection and renovation.
The 3rd series of research tools I used the most. These are many maps in different epochs, charts, and information on large historical events. These resources include maps of warlords distribution, charts of Tulou distribution, charts of Fujian development status after the reform and opening-up policy, traffic maps of Fujian, and Yongding state which is celebrated for Tulou in 1990,1999,2014, maps of tourer propaganda of Tulou. All this information can be used as my research tool to analyze the status of Tulou and the background of society seeking to happen out of deep relationships between homes and policies.
Rheniumhunt on the Formation of Tulou
2.1 The Clip of Tulou Formation
It is a common stating that Tulou foremost appeared in 11centuries. However, there is no evidence ( historical papers, bing edifices ) to turn out this guess. Harmonizing to the historical papers called the household tree of Guo, the first Tulou edifice was constructed in 1371 which is validated by historical experts, and the bing oldest Tulou was in Hua’an state now called Qiyun Tulou which was recorded on the plaque in the edifice. [ 1 ] From the fourteenth century, the Hakka people had been modifying Tulou to do it more and more suited for people populating together harmonizing to the natural environment, stuff, and societal background.
2.2 The Topographic Point of Tulou Formation
Most of Tulou edifices are located in Yong Ding City harmonizing to information and literature. [ 2 ]
Since the Chinese economic system chiefly depended on agribusiness at that clip, small low and smooth lands could be used as Big Dippers because there are many mountains in this country. Peoples had to utilize as few countries as possible to make more living infinite. Hakka people chose to populate in large household groups and construct higher edifices than traditional houses. ( At that clip, traditional houses were merely two-story such as quadrilaterals, cave homes… but Tulou was more than four-story. ) [ 3 ]
2.3 Tulou Formation of Ground
Tulou is celebrated for its alone roundness signifier. Shigeki Keiichiro, a Nipponese designer marveled at Tulou, said: It looks like UFO landed in the mountains. So we can see the roundness signifier is the chiefly individuality of Tulou. However, why Hakka people designed it as rotundity is ever questioned by tourers. The common position is that the demand for defense mechanism maps. However, there’s a batch of historical edifices in the universe that hadn’t been designed in roundness signifier but they besides had a perfect defensive consequence and survived until now. Another position is the Chinese traditional civilization ’round Eden and square Earth’ influenced the Tulou signifier. But it is besides flimsy, quadrilaterals, cave homes, Yunnan Yikeyin… they are non in roundness signifier but all derived from Chinese traditional civilization. So after comparing the square constructing with rotundity edifice, There are several advantages of a unit of ammunition edifice:

corner suites in square edifice have no daytime and are disturbed by steps, no corner suites in a unit of ammunition edifice.
no differences between each unit in the unit of ammunition edifice, it is easy for equal distribution.
wood constituents in units of ammunition edifice are more incorporate.
building method of the roof in the unit of ammunition edifice is much easier than square edifice.
unit of ammunition edifice has better temblor immune behavior than square edifice.
circular edifices fit the form of mountains really good, so they have a broader position for supporting. They are non merely easy for building besides saving stuff (stuff in the mountains are rather cherished ). Local people made decisions from practical work. That’s why they chose a unit of ammunition edifice as their place. [ 4 ] However, it is an evolutive procedure from square edifices to round edifices that construction and maps tended to be sensible. Survey of Yong Ding metropolis besides proved that square Tulou edifices came out foremost, so after about 1 century Hakka people started to construct a unit of ammunition Tulou edifice. [ 5 ] So we can see at that place’s no uncertainty that unit of ammunition Tulou edifices was really likely to be the continuance of Tulou development.

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